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4321 Co-Occurring Mutations in ASXL1 and SRSF2 Define a Unique, Prognostically Relevant Chromatin-Spliceosome Gene Signature in De Novo acute Myeloid Leukemia

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 617. Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Biomarkers, Molecular Markers and Minimal Residual Disease in Diagnosis and Prognosis: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Clinical Research, real-world evidence
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Vikram Dhillon, DO, MBA1,2, Jeff Aguilar, MD, MBA3, Sushmitha Nanja Reddy, MD, MBBS4, Lakshmi Bhavani Potluri, MD5, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski, M.D., Ph.D., FACP6 and Suresh Kumar Balasubramanian, MD4,6

1Department of Hematology/Oncology, Neal Cancer Center/Houston Methodist Hospital, Detroit, MI
2Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Center/Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
3Department of Oncology, Karmanos Cancer Institute/Wayne State University, Windsor, ON, Canada
4Karmanos Cancer Institute/Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
5Wayne State University/Sinai-Grace Hospital, Farmington Hills, MI
6Department of Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

Background: Prior studies with extensive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) molecular profiling identified various subgroups wherein co-mutations in genes related to chromatin regulation and RNA splicing showed no survivors, irrespective of age or treatment. Within the chromatin-spliceosome family, co-mutations of ASXL1 and SRSF2 are linked to poor outcomes. However, the representation of this co-mutational pair in de novo, secondary, and therapy-associated AML is not well described. Also, there is no evidence to demonstrate if HSCT would alter poor prognostic outcomes in this unique molecular subgroup of AML. We sought to assess the clinicogenomic characteristics of ASXL1/SRSF2 co-mutation and its outcomes in a large, well-annotated, sequenced cohort of real-world AML patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of adult AML patients with ASXL1MT/SRSF2MT by screening well-annotated public databases, cBioPortal (Cerami et al., 2012) and AACR GENIE (v 13.1), and expanded with a published metanalytic cohort of various sub-studies from Cleveland Clinic Foundation from 2012-2021 (Awada et al., Blood 2021, Kewan et al., Nature Communications, 2023). We analyzed the NGS data in the context of baseline clinical parameters, coexisting mutations, variant allele frequencies, karyotype, and AML subtypes. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), and secondary outcomes included survival based on AML subtype, karyotype, and hematopoietic stem cell transplant treatment (HSCT). The chi-square test was used to study various described parameters, and Kaplan-Meir curves were used for survival analyses.

Results: We screened a total of 15,742 adult patients with AML, and 2,471 eligible patients were separated into 3 cohorts: 280 (11.3%) patients with ASXLMT/SRSF2MT, 1,025 (41.5%) patients with ASXLMT/SRSF2WT and 1,166 (47.2%) patients with ASXLWT/SRSF2MT. In addition, three AML subtypes were established: de novo AML (dnAML), secondary AML (sAML), and therapy-associated AML (tAML).

The median age of the co-mutated cohort was 70.1 ys. [range 42-100 ys.], compared to the ASXL1MT [17-100 ys., p=0.0046] and SRSF2MT cohorts [25-99 ys., p=0.5]. Females were more prominently represented in the ASXL1MT cohort compared to the SRSF2MT cohort [47% vs 30%, p<0.0001]. All three cohorts were predominantly enriched by dnAML (69%, 70%, and 67%), the ASXL1MT cohort had the most tAML (2.2%), and sAML enriched the SRSF2MT cohort (31%). Abnormal karyotype enriched the ASXL1MT/SRSF2WT cohort compared to SRSF2MT [50% vs 39%, p=0.0001] and equivalent in ASXL1MT cohorts (50% vs 51%, p=0.06].

Median OS was driven in part by the ASXL1MT clone and lowest for the co-mutated compared to the ASXL1MT [12.0 vs 12.5 mo., p=0.0055] and SRSF2MT cohorts [12.0 vs 17.5 mo., p =<0.0001]. When divided by AML-subtype, dnAML had the lowest median OS in the co-mutated, compared to the ASXL1MT [12 vs 15 mo., p =0.03] and the SRSF2MT cohorts [12 vs 17 mo., p =0.02]. sAML had nearly equivalent survival across all cohorts (10.0 vs 9.3 vs 9.4 mo.), and although tAML offered numerically better survival (NE vs 8.7 vs 17.5 mo.), it was not significant. Normal karyotype offered a numerical survival advantage (NE vs 14.39 vs 16.85 mo.).

The median number of mutations in the co-mutated cohort was 4 (range 3 - 7), Fig 1(A). The most common co-occurring mutations in this cohort were RUNX1 (78%), TET2 (48%), IDH2 (43%), NRAS (16%), and CEBPA (15%). 21 patients were transplant-eligible from the co-mutated cohort, with median OS after HSCT being 33 vs 12 mo. without HCT (p =0.0010), Fig 1 (B).

Conclusions: ASXL1/SRSF2 co-mutated patients represent a unique chromatin-spliceosome signature, most prominently in de novo AML, associated with a significantly lower OS. Therefore, it must be identified at diagnosis for improved prognostic assessment and potential therapeutic implications. HSCT can provide longer-term survival in these patients. This represents the largest reported cohort of patients with ASXL1/SRSF2 co-mutated AML. Further studies are warranted to validate the chromatin-spliceosome signature and prognosis.

Disclosures: Maciejewski: Regeneron: Consultancy, Honoraria; Omeros: Consultancy; Novartis: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Alexion: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Balasubramanian: Karyopharm Therapeutics: Other: Drug supply for research; Kura Oncology: Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH