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4533 Prognostic Significance and Clinical Correlations of Myeloid Mutations in Myelofibrosis Based on Their Functional Class

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 631. Myeloproliferative Syndromes and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Basic and Translational: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Translational Research, MPN, genomics, Chronic Myeloid Malignancies, Diseases, Myeloid Malignancies, Biological Processes, Technology and Procedures, molecular testing
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Valentina Boldrini, MD1,2*, Paola Guglielmelli, MD, PhD2,3, Giada Rotunno2,3*, Chiara Maccari2,3*, Giacomo Coltro, MD2,3*, Giuseppe Gaetano Loscocco, MD2,3*, Francesco Mannelli, MD2,3*, Naseema Gangat, MBBS4, Ayalew Tefferi, MD4 and Alessandro M. Vannucchi2,3

1University of Florence, Florence, Italy
2CRIMM, Center for Research and Innovation of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy
3Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
4Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

Background: In addition to the driver mutations JAK2, CALR, and MPL, patients (pts) with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) may also express mutations in a number of genes frequently associated with myeloid neoplasms. These genes encode regulators of chromatin modification and DNA methylation, RNA splicing and transcription, as well as oncogenes and signal transduction. In pts with PMF, including those with prefibrotic (pre-)-PMF, selected mutations were shown to deserve prognostic relevance, and led to the development of molecular integrated, or exclusive, scores (such as MIPSS70, MIPSS70-plus, GIPSS and others).

Aim: The aim of the study was to correlate the type of mutations, clustered in relation to their known functional classes, with hematological and clinical correlates, and outcome in a large population of molecularly annotated pts with PMF.

Patients and Methods: All pts with a confirmed ICC 2022 diagnosis of PMF from the database at CRIMM (Florence), for whom mutation analysis of a panel of 40 myeloid neoplasm-associated genes performed by NGS (Oncomine, ThermoFisher) was available, were included in the study. Pts were stratified in 6 categories based on known function of mutated gene: spliceosome (cat. 1: SF3B1, U2AF1, SRSF2, ZRSR2), DNA methylation gene (cat. 2: TET2, DNMT3A, IDH1, IDH2, SETBP1), histone modification gene (cat. 3: ASXL1, EZH2), RAS pathway (cat. 4: NRAS, KRAS, CBL, NF1, PTPN11), transcription factor (cat. 5: RUNX1, NFE2, TP53) and “other” gene mutations (cat. 6: LNK/SH2B3).

Results: A total of 286 pts with at least 1 myeloid neoplasm-associated gene mutation were included (110 prePMF, 38.5%; 176 overt PMF, 61.5%). Of these, 69 have mutations in spliceosome genes, 81 in DNA methylation genes, 95 in histone modification genes, 19 in the RAS pathway, 13 in transcription factor genes and 9 in “other” gene category.

Analysis of clinical characteristics (Table) showed that Cat. 1 pts were significantly older (80.6% aged >60y, P=0.003), no difference regarding gender. There was no difference in blood counts but circulating blasts >1%, that were higher in cat 3 and 1 compared to the others (P=0.009). A G3 fibrosis was more common in cat 3 and 5 (43.5% and 50%, p<0.001). No significant difference was noticed as regarded driver mutations and karyotype abnormalities. Splenomegaly was more common in cat 3 and cat 6 (86.5% and 88.9%, respectively, p=0.015), while constitutional symptoms were enriched in cat 5 (69.2%, p=0.015). The proportion of pts with transfusion dependency was lower among those with mutations in DNA methylation genes (cat. 2) and “other” mutations (cat. 6) (21% and 22.2%, respectively, p=0.014). There was no significant difference among gene categories as regarded IPSS score, MIPSS70 score, thrombosis and bleeding events, progression to overt MF (in case of pre-PMF), transformation to AML and rate of secondary neoplasms.

The median overall survival (OS) for all pts was 7.1 years (IC: 5.7-8.5), with categories 2, 4 and 5 showing the longest survival (10.7y (6.3-15.1), 11.5y (4.4-18.7), and 10.5y (2-18.9) respectively). In particular, pts in cat 2 showed significantly longer OS than pts in cat 1 (5.4y; HR 1.7, 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; p=0.021) and cat 3 (10.7 vs 6.1y; HR 1.5, 95% CI, 1-2.3). Considering that cat 1, 3, and 6 on one side, and cat 2, 4, 5 on the other, did not differ significant each to the other, we combined those categories to assess respective impact on survival. We found a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups, with pts harboring mutations in spliceosome, histone modifiers and “other” genes having significantly shortened survival (5.8y, CI 4.1-7.5; HR 1.57, CI 1.13-2.18) compared to the other categories (median survival, 10.8y, CI 7.2-14.3) (P=.007).

Conclusion: Current analysis revealed distinctive clinical characteristics and survival outcomes associated with specific categories of mutated myeloid genes in pts with PMF, largely overlapping with the ICC defined “myelodysplasia-related gene mutations” category.

Disclosures: Guglielmelli: Novartis: Other: Other member of advisory board, speaker at meeting, Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Other: Other member of advisory board, speaker at meeting, Speakers Bureau; GSK: Speakers Bureau. Vannucchi: AOP: Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Speakers Bureau.

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