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4611 Phase II Study Assessing Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of High Dose Intravenous Ascorbic Acid in Patients with TET2 Mutant Clonal Cytopenias

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 637. Myelodysplastic Syndromes – Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, clinical trials, MDS, Clinical Research, Chronic Myeloid Malignancies, Diseases, Therapies, Myeloid Malignancies
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Zhuoer Xie, MD, MS1,2, Kristen McCullough, PharmD1, Terra L. Lasho, PhD3, Jenna A. Fernandez, PhD1*, Christy M Finke4*, Michelle Renee Amundson3*, Betsy LaPlant, MS5*, Abhishek Mangaokar6*, Naseema Gangat, MBBS1, Kaaren K. Reichard, MD7, Michelle Ann Elliott, MD3, Thomas E. Witzig, MD3 and Mrinal M. Patnaik, MD, MBBS4

1Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
2H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Institute, Tampa, FL
3Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
4Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
5Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Biomedical Statistics & Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
6Mayo Clinic, Rochester
7Division of Hematopathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

Background: Clonal cytopenia(s) of undetermined significance (CCUS) is defined as persistent cytopenias arising in the context of myeloid neoplasm (MN)-associated somatic mutations (MT) in hematopoietic stem cells. Patients (PTs) with TET2MT CCUS have a high probability of progression to MN. To date, no FDA-approved therapies exist for CCUS, and PTs often have similar cytopenias/transfusion needs as those with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). TET2 is an ascorbic acid (AA)-dependent dioxygenase that catalyzes the conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), providing rationale to study high-dose IV (HI)-AA in TET2MT CCUS. Here we report the final results of this pilot trial.

Methods: This is an investigator-initiated, single-institutional, phase II trial assessing the safety and efficacy of HI-AA in PTs with TET2MT CCUS (NCT03418038). PTs≥ 18 years with ≥1 TET2MT with or without additional somatic MTs, without prior treatment, and with any of the following laboratory criteria: (1) hemoglobin (Hb) ≤10g/dL, (2) absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ≤1(10^9/L), (3) platelet count (PLT)≤100 (10^9/L) were eligible. HI-AA (1g/kg, maximum 100g) was given 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was hematologic response rates determined by MDS IWG 2018 criteria at week 20. (Platzbecker Blood 2018) and reported as hematologic improvement (HI)- erythropoietic (HI-E), platelets (HI-P), neutrophils (HI-N). Secondary endpoints include safety and adverse events (AEs), graded by NCI-CTCAE v4.03. Correlative studies include changes in TET2MT variant allele fraction (VAF), in vitro colony formation and differentiation, global and sequence-specific DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation, and quantitative 5hmC estimated by IHC in bone marrow biopsy specimens.

Results: Ten patients were enrolled, with a median age of 71.4 (range: 65, 79) years, 8 (80%) males. The median number of mutations was 3, with 9 (90%) having co-mutations. All PTs but one [-Y] had normal karyotype. Baseline Hb levels were normal in all but one who was red blood transfusion dependent. Five (50%) PTs were thrombocytopenic, and 5 (50%) PTs had ANC<1 (10^9/L). (Table).

HI-AA was well tolerated with the most common AEs being infusion-related polyuria (40%) and polydipsia (40%, 3 Grade 1, 1 Grade 2). One (10%) PT had constipation and headaches (both Grade 1), and 1 (10%) experienced dyspepsia. No treatment-related Grade 3 or 4 AEs’ or deaths were reported.

The median follow-up duration was 16.8 months (range: 9.4, 24.1). Overall, no PTs met the criteria for HI. There were no significant differences with regards to median Hb, PLT, and ANC values at baseline, week 20, and 1-year (median Hb: 13.3, 12.5, and 12.7 g/dL, p=0.93; PLT: 97 vs. 120 vs. 92.5 X10^9/L, p>0.99, and ANC: 0.9 vs. 1.2 vs. 1.3 X10^9/L, p=0.99). By CTCAE grading criteria for cytopenias, 3 (30%) PTs had an improvement in severity of cytopenias, while 2 had worsening. One (10%) PT had an improvement in PLT (baseline vs. week 20: 62 vs 192X10^9/L) but was morphologically deemed to meet criteria for CMML-1 at week 20.

Four (40%) PTs met criteria for disease progression (PT_4, 7,8,10); CMML-1- 2 and MDS-2. The median time to progression was 5 months (95% CI: 4.9, unreached). Two PTs had mutational clonal evolution, with 1 (PT_8) acquiring a RUNX1 (VAF: 20%) and 1 (PT_9) acquiring 2 CBL mutations (both VAF:4%) at one-year follow-up. There were no significant differences regarding the clinical characteristics or the TET2 variants between PTs who had stable disease vs. progression. There were no significant differences in TET2 VAF at baseline, week 20, and 1-year (median: 39% vs. 43% vs. 42%, p=0.54). We profiled changes in 5-mC and 5-hmC (Ilumina EpicArray) in PTs pre- and post-IV AA treatment and did not observe global changes. However, we were able to highlight site-specific changes in differentially methylated regions, largely resulting in hypomethylation at enhancer sites and affecting actively transcribed states in PTs with an improvement in cytopenia(s) severity by CTACE criteria (Figure).

Conclusion: We report the final safety and efficacy analysis of HI-AA in PTs with TET2MT CCUS. The trial data suggest that HI-AA is safe and well tolerated. Although there were no significant responses by IWG MDS criteria, alleviation in severity of cytopenias in a subset of PTs (n=3) along with correlative epigenetic changes in enhancer regions, needs further exploration.

Disclosures: Xie: Moffitt Cancer Center: Current Employment; Novartis: Speakers Bureau. Witzig: Kura Oncology: Research Funding; ADC: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Karyopharm: Research Funding; Salarius Pharma: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Patnaik: CTI Pharmaceuticals: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Kura Oncology: Research Funding; Epigenetix: Research Funding; StemLine: Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH