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3821 Intracerebral Hemorrhage Leads to Anemia By Disrupting Erythropoiesis and Erythromyeloblastic Islands

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 101. Red Cells and Erythropoiesis, Excluding Iron: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Fundamental Science, Research, hematopoiesis, Diseases, Therapies, immunology, Biological Processes, molecular biology, multi-systemic interactions
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Shijie Zhang1*, Peijun Jia1*, Qinfeng Peng2*, Jiaming Cao1*, Yuanlin Xu3*, Chao Jiang4*, Hongtao Ji5*, Fuyou Guo6*, Yan Li1*, Jingxin Zhang1*, Huan Zhang1*, Jiaxin Li2*, Ying Zhang1*, Xinyang Zhao, PhD7, Xuemei Chen2*, Jian Wang2* and Xiuli An8*

1School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
2Department of Anatomy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
3Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University & Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
4The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
5Henan Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, China
6The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
7University of Alabama At Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
8New York Blood Center, New York

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), caused by the rupture of a cerebral vessel and subsequent entry of blood into the brain parenchyma, is a major form of acquired brain injury and contributes a remarkable proportion of stroke-related morbidity and mortality. Due to the few proven effective emergency and preventive treatments, patients who survived suffer varying degrees of poor prognosis that affect their quality of life. There is an urgent need to explore the cellular and molecular basis of the differences in the severity and prognosis of ICH. Anemia is a common manifestation of ICH. However, the mechanisms underlying ICH-induced anemia as we as the correlation between anemia and ICH progression/prognosis remain unclear.

In this study, we found that approximately 35.1% (39 of 111) of ICH patients exhibited anemia and that decreased hemoglobin levels were positively associated with higher scores on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, which quantifies the degree of neurological deficit, at admission. Furthermore, patients with decreased hemoglobin levels at admission showed higher modified Rankin scale scores at 3 months, which reflect the global disability of daily living at this time, suggesting that anemia was associated with a more severe progression and poor patient prognosis.

To investigate the effects of ICH on bone marrow (BM) erythropoiesis, we conducted experiments in 12-month-old mice with collagenase-induced striatal ICH. Our results showed that ICH caused apparent anemia on day 3, associated with larger hematomas in the striatum and more severe neurologic deficits. We first evaluated the phenotype of hematopoietic progenitors and found that mice suffering ICH exhibited increased granulocyte monocyte progenitors but a significant decrease in common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyte erythrocyte progenitors compared to control mice, suggesting a reduced source of erythroid progenitors. Further analysis revealed that the colony-forming ability of erythroid progenitors and subsequent terminal differentiation was significantly suppressed after ICH. To assess whether ICH-induced suppression of erythropoiesis is associated with erythromyeloblastic islands (EMBIs), the niche for erythropoiesis/myelopoiesis, we performed ICH using 12-month-old EpoR-tdTomato-Cre mice and found that the number of BM EMBIs and EpoR+ macrophages decreased significantly. Moreover, the number and proportion of developing erythroid cells surrounding EMBIs decreased while LY6G+ cells representing granulocytes increased prominently, indicating an altered microenvironment, with EMBI favoring granulopoiesis over erythropoiesis after ICH.

Studies have shown that inflammation plays a crucial role in secondary brain injury after ICH. We hypothesize that inflammatory cytokines may contribute to the suppression of erythropoiesis observed in ICH mouse models. To test this, we measured inflammatory factors in both peripheral blood and BM fluid using Quantibody Mouse Inflammation Array. In particular, IL-6 concentrations in peripheral blood and BM fluid in ICH mice were significantly higher than controls. Treatment with MR16-1, an IL-6 antagonist, alleviated ICH-induced anemia and improved BM erythropoiesis in ICH mice, as evidenced by increased peripheral red blood cells and hemoglobin levels, elevated numbers of erythroid progenitors and terminal erythroblast. MR16-1 treatment also improved BM EMBI formation and increased EpoR+ macrophages. In addition, MR16-1 treatment effectively improved neurologic deficits and reduced brain hematoma after ICH. Administration of recombinant IL-6 to wild-type mice resulted in decreased levels of red blood cells and hemoglobin along with suppression of erythropoiesis in the BM.

Collectively, these results suggest that ICH modulates erythropoiesis and erythromyeloblastic islands function to ultimately lead to anemia and reveal a possible therapeutic opportunity to reverse ICH-induced anemia and improve ICH prognosis by targeting IL-6.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH