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4422 Prognostic Significance of Monoclonal Paraproteinemia in Marginal Zone Lymphoma

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 623. Mantle Cell, Follicular, and Other Indolent B Cell Lymphomas: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, adult, epidemiology, Clinical Practice (Health Services and Quality), Lymphomas, Clinical Research, Diseases, indolent lymphoma, real-world evidence, Lymphoid Malignancies, survivorship, Study Population, Human
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Burak Karakaya, MD1*, Boran Yavuz, MD2* and Fatih Demirkan, MD2

1Department of Internal Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey
2Division of Hematology, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey

Introduction and aim: Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is an indolent lymphoma which can progress with frequent relapses and transform to aggressive lymphoma. Therefore, the factors that affect prognosis are important fields of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of immunoglobulin (Ig) paraproteinemia on MZL prognosis and survival.

Material and method: Between January 2000 and June 2022, 73 patients who applied to Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine Hospital Department of Hematology, diagnosed with MZL, and continued their follow-up in our center were assessed. Patients whose paraproteinemia was investigated by immunofixation (SIFE), serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP), or free kappa and lambda free light chain (FLC) assays were included in the study. Demographic characteristics and laboratory data were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Ig paraproteinemia was ascertained in 20 patients which 11 of 20 was IgM type. The median follow-up was 58 (3-200) months. Median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were not reached. Mean OS and PFS were 169±8.5 and 146±10.6 months, respectively.

Serum Ig paraproteinemia was detected in 20 of 73 patients (27.3%). Most were IgM- κ (9, 45%), followed by IgG-κ (7, %35), IgM-λ (2, %10), IgA-λ (1, %5), and IgA-κ (1, %5). The presence of Ig paraproteinaemia was significantly associated with advanced age (p<0.001), advanced disease stage (III-IV) (p=0.023), elevated ß2 microglobulin (ß2MG) level (p=0.001), decreased hemoglobin level (p=0.002), decreased albumin level (p<0.001), and bone marrow involvement (p=.026). Gender, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, and elevated Ki-67 were not significantly associated with the presence of Ig paraproteinaemia. In our cohort Ig paraproteinemia was shown in 35%, 10% and 55% of extranodal MZL, splenic MZL and nodal MZL respectively (p=0,009) which favors nodal MZL dominance.

The prognostic value of Ig paraproteinaemia and other clinical outcomes are summarized in Table 1. The OS rate at 5 and 10 years was %87.2 and %81.9, respectively. The PFS rate at 5 and 10 years was %71.5 and %68.3 respectively. Patients with Ig paraproteinaemia has shorter OS compared to patients without any paraproteinemia (73,8 mo. vs 178,8 mo. p<0,05). This survival disadvantage was more pronounced in patients with IgM paraproteinemias. Kaplan–Meier survival curve analysis of PFS according to the occurrence of Ig paraproteinaemia are shown in Figure 1.

Conclusion: Although MZL is an indolent lymphoma type and there are many prognostic factors affecting its prognosis, it may show relapsed or refractory disease course or histological transformation. 55% of our nodal MZL cohort had Ig paraproteinemia which is higher than all reported cohorts in the literature so far. Several studies have previously shown that Ig paraproteinemia may be a potential prognostic factor for NHL and MALT lymphoma 1–3. Ren et al. showed that Ig paraproteinemia was an independent prognostic predictor for MALT lymphoma 4. Epperla et al. showed that patients diagnosed with MZL with Ig paraproteinemia had inferior survival in comparation with no-M protein group 5. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that Ig paraproteinaemia and especially of IgM type shortens PFS and OS in patients with MZL. Thus, our study is the first in literature to show survival disadvantage for MZL patients specifically with IgM paraproteinemia and deserves confirmation with further studies.

Disclosures: Demirkan: Johnson&Johnson: Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau.

*signifies non-member of ASH