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3157 Chaperon Protein GRP78 Released from MPN Cells Increase Expression of Lysyl Oxidase in Human Stroma Cell Line

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 631. Myeloproliferative Syndromes and Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Basic and Translational: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Translational Research, Biological Processes, pathogenesis
Sunday, December 10, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Kei Nakajima, MD1* and Keita Kirito, MD2

1Hematology and Oncology, University of Yamanashi, CHUO-SHI, YAMANASHI, Japan
2Department of Hematology and Oncology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Japan

Impaired function of the endoplasmic stress (ER) response causes numerous pathological conditions, including tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the pathological role of ER stress response systems in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We found an increased expression of the chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78, which is a central regulator of ER stress in megakaryocytes from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) (n=7) or post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis(POST-ET-MF) patients (n=2) regardless of the type of driver mutation. In accord with these notions, we found that GRP78 was overexpressed in JAK2V617F-harboring cell lines (HEL and SET-2) and in UT-7/TPO cells overexpressing either type1 or type2 mutant form of calreticulin. To address the mechanism responsible for the induction of GRP78, we treated the HEL and SET-2 cells with 4-phenyl butyric acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid both of which are well known inhibitors of ER stress, however, these inhibitors did not affect the expression levels of GRP78. These results indicated that overexpression of GRP78 shown in these cells were not a result of activation of ER stress. In contrast, ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of JAK2V617F, blocked GRP78 expression in these cells. We also found ruxolitinib blocked nuclear accumulation of the transcription factor 4 (ATF4), one of the main transcription factors which regulate GRP78. Furthermore, knockdown of ATF4 using siRNA also resulted in suppression of GRP78 levels in HEL and SET-2 cells. These results suggested that JAK2V617F induce GRP78 through activation of ATF4. We also confirmed that megakaryocytes from MF patients had statistically higher nuclear to cytoplasmic intensity of ATF4 compared to megakaryocytes found in control subjects.

For the next step, we tried to find out the pathological action of GRP78 in MPN cells. Although the GRP78 usually works as chaperon protein in cytosol, some cancer cells secret GRP78 into tumor microenvironment and activates signal transduction molecules in surrounding cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that overexpressed GRP78 proteins in MPN cells may secret and modulate phenotype of bone marrow stroma cells. Initially, we confirmed the presence of GRP78 proteins in culture media from HEL and SET-2 cells. Next, we investigated whether GRP78 secreted by HEL and SET-2 cells affect phenotype of bone marrow stromal cells. For this purpose, we used human bone marrow stroma cell line, HS-5. HS-5 cells were co-cultured with HEL or SET-2 cells with trans-well system, and changes of several key molecules involved in development of fibrosis were analyzed. We found that co-culture with HEL or SET-2 cells clearly indued expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) , which mediate cross-linking of collagen fiber and induce tissue fibrosis , in HS-5 cells. Anti-GRP78 neutralizing antibody abrogated LOX elevation, in contrast, recombinant form of GRP78 proteins induced LOX proteins in HS-5.

According to the above results, we examined LOX expression in bone marrow specimens from MF patients. The areas of LOX expression cells were statistically higher in MF patients compared to control group. In addition, high power field observations detected not only in round cells but also in spindle like cells expressed LOX in MF patients, suggesting that bone marrow stromal cells in MF patients express LOX.

In conclusion, we demonstrated that GRP78 was overexpressed both in MPN derived cell lines and also in primary megakaryocytes from MF patients. Our observations proposed that overexpressed GRP78 in MPN cells contribute development of myelofibrosis through secreted in microenvironment and induced expression of extracellular matrix modulating enzyme LOX in bone marrow stromal cells.

Disclosures: Kirito: Pharmaessentia: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria.

*signifies non-member of ASH