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1250 A Feasibility Study Evaluating Von Willebrand Factor in Patients with Gastrointestinal Angiodysplasia

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 322. Disorders of Coagulation or Fibrinolysis: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster I
Saturday, December 9, 2023, 5:30 PM-7:30 PM

Nicholas L.J. Chornenki, MD1, Julie Grabell2*, Mackenzie L Bowman, MSc, PhD2*, David Good, MD, FRCPC2, Lawrence Hookey, MD3* and Paula James, MD, FRCPC4

1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
2Queen's University, Kingston, ON, CAN
3Queen's University, Kingston, Canada
4Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada

Background: Abnormalities of von Willebrand Factor (VWF), such as those found in von Willebrand Disease (VWD) are associated with the development of abnormal blood vessels known as angiodysplasia. Angiodysplasia occurs primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, particularly the small bowel. Among patients with VWD, angiodysplasia is significantly overrepresented as a cause of GI bleeding and occurs in all VWD subtypes although it is reported more frequently in those with loss of the high molecular weight multimer of VWF. Recent studies have demonstrated more than a third of patients with VWD and GI bleeding have angiodysplasia when systematically assessed with Video Capsule Endoscopy (VCE) to examine the small bowel. Given the relationship between angiodysplasia and VWD our objective was to assess the feasibility of evaluating patients with GI angiodysplasia for abnormalities of VWF.

Methods: We undertook a prospective single center pilot study to assess patients over the age of 18 with GI angiodysplasia for underlying abnormalities of VWF. Patients were identified based on angiodysplasia being present on a VCE study. Patients who consented to enrollment completed a self-administered bleeding assessment tool (BAT) as well as baseline demographic data. VWF testing included VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF functional assay (VWF:GPIbM), Factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C), and VWF pro-peptide (VWFpp) levels.

Results: After reviewing 190 consecutive VCE studies performed at our institution between April 2021 and April 2023, we identified 50 patients who had capsule endoscopies demonstrating angiodysplasia of the GI tract. Thirteen of these patients consented to enrollment in the study. The bleeding histories of included patients are detailed in Table 1 along with their baseline clinical, laboratory, and demographic data. Two patients endorsed lifelong bleeding symptoms and three reported a significant family history of bleeding­ – all in a female relative. ISTH-BAT scores ranged from 0 to 18 with a median score of 2. Since our population is older than other studies that report on bleeding scores, we considered an abnormal bleeding score to be >6 as recent evidence indicates normal BAT scores increase over time. Five patients (38.6%) in our study had an ISTH-BAT abnormal bleeding score. VWF levels were assessed (Table 1) and one patient aged 88 years old with a significant family and lifelong history of bleeding received a new diagnosis of Type 2A VWD. Severe iron deficiency anemia requiring ongoing IV iron was diagnosed in two patients.

Conclusion: In our feasibility study, we demonstrated a feasible protocol for recruitment of patients with GI angiodysplasia for clinical and laboratory testing of VWF. A significant proportion of our patients (38.6%) had abnormal bleeding scores and one patient had an underlying Type 2A VWD diagnosis.

Disclosures: James: Star/Vega Therapeutics: Consultancy; Bayer: Research Funding; Band/Guardian Therapeutics: Consultancy.

*signifies non-member of ASH