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4560 Germline MPL Mutations May be a Rare Cause of “Triple-Negative” Thrombocytosis

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 634. Myeloproliferative Syndromes: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Oscar Borsani, MD1,2, Daniela Pietra, PhD3*, Ilaria Carola Casetti, MD, PhD1*, Daniele Vanni, MD1*, Giacomo Riccaboni, MD1*, Silvia Catricalà, PhD2*, Grazia Bossi, MD4*, Luca Arcaini2,5* and Elisa Rumi, MD1,2*

1Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
2Division of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
3U.O.C Ematologia 1, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
4Department of Pediatrics, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy
5Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia and Division of Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy


Rare cases of primary thrombocytosis are related to inherited genetic abnormalities and are called hereditary thrombocytosis (HT).

HT has clinical features resembling sporadic essential thrombocythemia (ET) but has usually an autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance with variable penetrance. To date, germline mutation involving the MPL, THPO, JAK2 genes have been associated with HT.


The study included 933 patients evaluated at our Division because of persistent isolated thrombocytosis for whom secondary reactive causes were excluded. Patients were screened for the three canonical somatic driver mutations associated with myeloproliferative neoplasms: JAK2 V617F mutation, CALR exon 9 mutations, MPL exon 10 mutations.

Triple-negative cases with unexplained isolated thrombocytosis which also resulted negative for non-canonical exon 10 MPL mutations were analyzed using next generation sequencing (NGS) to test a panel of 80 myeloid genes.


Of 933 patients with isolated thrombocytosis screened, 567 were JAK2-mutated, 255 CALR-mutated, 41 MPL-mutated, 2 double-mutated and 68 triple-negative. Two MPL-mutated patients carried a non-canonical mutation located in exon 10: MPL W515* and MPL V501A. Of the 68 triple-negative patients, 32 were evaluated by NGS and one of them showed another non-canonical mutation of MPL located outside exon 10: MPL R102P. These 3 non-canonical MPL mutations resulted to be germline as they were detected also in DNA extracted from T lymphocytes and from hair roots. Due to the germline nature of the mutations, a study of the family was carried out. In 2 out of 3 pedigrees at least a second relative carried the same germline mutation discovered in the proband; these 2 pedigrees are shown in the figure.

Patient MPC17_15 was an 80 years-old patient with a history of thrombocytosis. She resulted JAK2- and CALR- wild-type while HRM screening was positive for exon 10 MPL mutations; Sanger sequencing identified the MPL W515* mutation in DNA from granulocytes, T-lymphocytes and hair roots, confirming its germline nature. Her children showed a normal complete blood count (CBC) and were MPL wild-type, thus confirming a segregation between mutation and clinical phenotype.

Patient MPC14_674 (panel A) was a 36 years-old women with a history of mild thrombocytosis never investigated before. She was referred to our clinic by Pediatricians after the delivery because her baby (MPC17_167) showed persistent isolated thrombocytosis (826 x109/L) during the first months of life despite the exclusion of the most common reactive causes of thrombocytosis. Sanger sequencing identified the MPL V501A mutation in granulocyte and in T-lymphocyte in both cases. To evaluate the segregation of MPL V501A with the disease phenotype, we evaluated the CBC and MPL mutation in the other relatives. Both proband’s father (MPC23_597) and sister (MPC23_602) carried germline heterozygous MPL V501A mutation associated with a PLT count above or at the upper limit of normal range (570 x109/L and 355 x109/L, respectively). Conversely, the husband (MPC17_495), the second son (MPC18_43) and the mother (MPC23_603) of the proband showed a normal CBC and were MPL wild-type, confirming an AD inheritance.

Patient MPC07_130 (panel B) was a 44 years-old women with triple-negative isolated thrombocytosis lasting since 2007. NGS analysis showed the presence of a heterozygous germline MPL R102P mutation. As this mutation is located in exon 3, it was not detected through HRM and Sanger sequencing which target only exon 10. Her son (MPC13_672), 18 years-old, was completely asymptomatic but the CBC showed mild thrombocytosis (472 x 109/L). He tested negative for the 3 driver mutations but Sanger sequencing of MPL exon 3 identified the heterozygous germline MPL R102P mutation.


We identified 3 non-canonical germline MPL mutations in 3 different unrelated subjects with isolated thrombocytosis: MPL W515*, MPL R102P, and MPL V501A.

Germline MPL mutations may underly HT and should be evaluated by sequencing of the whole exon 10 of MPL gene or by NGS in cases with isolated thrombocytosis negative for the three canonical somatic driver mutations. Namely, patients with HT might present as sporadic cases, and in the initial workup they might be inappropriately diagnosed with triple-negative ET. A correct diagnosis is pivotal to avoid unnecessary treatments.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH