Session: 613. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Leukemia, ALL, AML, Diseases, Non-Biological, Therapies, chemotherapy, Immune Disorders, Infectious Diseases, Neutropenia, Lymphoid Malignancies, Myeloid Malignancies, Clinically relevant
Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all consecutive pts with newly diagnosed AML/MDS or ALL treated at our institution from 3/2016-7/2019. Included pts received high-intensity chemotherapy, or a lower-intensity venetoclax (VEN)-containing regimen, for RIC. Therapy with high-dose (> 1g/m2/day) cytarabine (HiDAC), continuous cytarabine plus an anthracycline (3+7), or HyperCVAD was considered high-intensity therapy. Patients receiving PCZ, VCZ, or ISA for > 5 days beginning during induction therapy were included. Baseline evidence of prior mold infection and treatment with a concomitant echinocandin were not allowed. Echinocandin use preceding mold-active PAP was allowed, however prior use of an amphotericin B product was not. bIFI were defined according to ECMM criteria (Cornely et al, 2019).
Results: We identified 232 pts with AML/MDS (n=186), ALL (n=43), and biphenotypic leukemia (n=3). Among the AML/MDS pts, 31% (n=57) received a lower-intensity VEN-containing regimen, while 69% (n=129) received a high-intensity regimen with or without VEN. Nearly all pts with ALL and biphenotypic leukemia received high-intensity RIC with HyperCVAD or a HiDAC containing regimen. Of the 232 pts, PCZ (n=111), VCZ (n=84), or ISA (n=37) were used as PAP, respectively (Table 1). Most pts (n=157; 68%) received an echinocandin for a median of 6 days (range, 0-38), prior to transitioning to a mold-active triazole. Ten (4.3%) pts had a bIFI (6 proven, 1 probable, 3 possible) during induction therapy while receiving PAP (Table 2) including 9 (4.8%) pts with AML/MDS and 1 (2.3%) patient with ALL. An equal number of pts with bIFI were receiving lower-intensity, VEN-based therapy, or high-intensity therapy. Among the 84 pts receiving VCZ, 4 (4.8%) had a bIFI (4 proven); 3 pts (2.7%) receiving PCZ had a bIFI (2 proven, 1 possible); 3 pts (8.1%) receiving ISA had a bIFI (1 probable, 2 possible). C. glabrata (n=3), and C. krusei, Cryptococcus spp. and Fusarium spp. (one each) accounted for the 6 proven bIFIs. One patient had both C. glabrata and C. krusei fungemia. The probable bIFI was pneumonia with a positive Aspergillus GM from BAL. The 3 possible bIFI were pneumonia (n=2) and sinusitis (n=1). Eight pts (80%) were neutropenic (ANC < 500 cells/mm3) for >14 days at the time of bIFI, 1 pt was neutropenic for >7 days, and 1 pt had ANC > 500 cells/mm3. Seven pts with bIFI received a prior echinocandin for a median of 3 days (range, 0-15) prior to initiation of triazole PAP. Seven pts were neutropenic for < 7 days (n=2), 7-14 days (n=3), or > 14 days (n=2) at the time of azole initiation. bIFI occurred after a median of 20 days (range, 5-72) of azole PAP and a median of 24 days (range, 12-71) from the initiation of RIC. One patient with bIFI deceased within 42 days of starting RIC and did not achieve a response after RIC (bIFI-related mortality: 0.44%).
Conclusion: The incidence (<5%) and mortality (< 0.5%) due to bIFI in a contemporary cohort of pts with newly diagnosed acute leukemia receiving PAP is low. bIFI occurred late in induction therapy and most often in pts with > 14 days of neutropenia. Prophylaxis with VCZ, PCZ, or ISA, with or without a prior echinocandin, appear to be comparable options for PAP in pts with newly diagnosed AML or ALL undergoing RIC.
Disclosures: Bose: Pfizer, Inc.: Research Funding; Kartos Therapeutics: Honoraria, Research Funding; Astellas Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding; Celgene Corporation: Honoraria, Research Funding; CTI BioPharma: Honoraria, Research Funding; NS Pharma: Research Funding; Promedior, Inc.: Research Funding; Blueprint Medicines Corporation: Honoraria, Research Funding; Incyte Corporation: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Constellation Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding. Kontoyiannis: Gilead Sciences: Honoraria; United Medical: Honoraria; Astellas Pharma: Consultancy; Cidara Therapeutics: Consultancy; Amplyx Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Mayne Pharma: Consultancy; Pharma Pharmaceutical Industries: Consultancy; Merck & Co.: Consultancy, Honoraria.
OffLabel Disclosure: Voriconazole and isavuconazole are approved for the treatment of invasive fungal infections rather than the prevention, as discussed in this abstract.
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