Oral and Poster Abstracts
605. Molecular Pharmacology, Drug Resistance—Lymphoid and Other Diseases: Molecular pharmacology and drug resistance mechanisms in lymphoproliferative disorders
Leukemia, ALL, AML, Biological, antibodies, Diseases, Lymphoma (any), Therapies, CAR-Ts, immunotherapy, Lymphoid Malignancies, Myeloid Malignancies, Clinically relevant
Martin G. Klatt, MD1, Zhiyuan Yang, PhD2*, Jianying Liu, PhD2*, Tatyana Korontsvit, MD1*, Sung Soo Mun1*, Leila Peraro, PhD1*, Thomas J. Gardner, PhD1*, Christopher Bourne1*, Megan M. Dacek1*, Tao Dao, MD, PhD1*, Cheng Liu, PhD2* and David A. Scheinberg, MD, PhD1,3
1Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY
2Eureka Therapeutics, Emeryville, CA
3Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells represent a novel class of FDA-approved drugs with high efficacy against refractory B cell derived malignancies and potentially other cancer types. However, target selection for CAR T cell therapy remains challenging as cell surface proteins are not cancer-specific and therefore often not adaptable for CAR T cell therapy. In contrast, many intracellular proteins can be highly tumor specific and are targetable after proteasomal degradation and presentation on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complexes recognized by T cell receptor mimic antibodies. This class of antibodies recognizes peptide:HLA complexes with a similar mode of recognition as a TCR, but with the clinical versatility and applicability of an antibody. To identify a tumor specific target that is presented as a peptide in conjunction with the highly prevalent HLA allele A*02:01, we immunopurified peptide:HLA complexes from various cancer cell lines of different origins, separated HLA ligands from complexes and identified their peptide sequences via mass spectrometry. Network analysis of the resulting HLA ligand datasets identified shared biological processes among the tumor cell lines that were not present in network analyses of published datasets of healthy human tissue HLA ligandomes. Through this filtering process several potential targets were identified and an HLA ligand derived from kinetochore NDC80 protein homolog (NDC80) was selected as a target. The NDC80 derived peptide was detected in over 90% of the A*02 positive cell lines tested and never reported to be present in HLA ligand datasets of healthy human tissues. Furthermore, NDC80 has been shown to be differentially expressed in malignant compared to adjacent non-malignant tissues and is associated with poor prognosis in many cancer types. After utilizing E-ALPHA®phage library screening, one clone (NDC80-L1) was selected as the lead TCR mimic antibody. Overall, NDC80-L1 showed high specificity for the target HLA:peptide complex in both antibody and CAR T cell format in vitro and demonstrated binding primarily to the central region of the HLA ligand as determined by alanine screening assays. The exquisite specificity of NDC80-L1 was further illustrated by NDC80 knockdown experiments as well as successful immunopurification of the target peptide together with no relevant off-targets from BV173 ALL cells in mass spectrometry assays. Given the high specificity, sensitivity was assessed primarily in a potent CAR T cell format: Multiple tumor cell lines of different origin (e.g. ALL, AML, lymphoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, pancreatic and thyroid cancer) were successfully killed in vitro by NDC80-L1 CAR T cells, but no toxicity towards A*02:01 positive CAR T cells, healthy PBMCs or NDC80 target negative cell lines was observed. Interestingly, NDC80-L1 CAR T cells demonstrated highest efficacy in hematological malignancies most likely correlating with elevated expression of antigen presentation machinery and rapid cell division which leads to strong surface expression of NDC80 peptides. In summary, CAR T cells directed against peptide/HLA-A*02 derived from the NDC80 protein effectively kill multiple cancer cell lines in vitro without evidence of relevant off-target killing. However, the improved killing especially against ALL, AML and lymphomas highlights the potential of these CAR T cells to preferentially eliminate cancer cells with high proliferative capacity. Future in vivo studies with CAR T cell and antibody format will further investigate this TCR mimic antibody’s potential as a tumor-agnostic therapeutic agent.
*signifies non-member of ASH
Disclosures: Klatt: MSKCC/EUREKA: Patents & Royalties: MSKCC AND EUREKA THERAPUETICS HAVE FILED A PATENT FOR THIS ANTIBODY/SCFV. Yang: Eureka Therapuetics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company, Patents & Royalties: MSKCC and Eureka have filed patent for this TCRm and ScvF. Liu: Eureka Therapue: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company, Patents & Royalties: Eureka Therapuetics and MSKCC have filed patent on this ScFV and TCRm. Dao: Eureka Therapeutics: Consultancy. Liu: Eureka Therapeutics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company, Patents & Royalties: Eureka Therapuetics and MSKCC have filed patent on this ScFV and TCRm. Scheinberg: Eureka Therapeutics: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company, Patents & Royalties: Eureka Therapuetics and MSKCC have filed patent on this ScFV and TCRm; Actinium: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company; Sellas: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company; Contrafect: Current equity holder in private company; Arvenas: Current equity holder in private company; Sapience: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company; Iovance: Current equity holder in private company; Oncopep: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company; Lantheus: Current equity holder in private company; Enscyse: Current equity holder in private company.