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2879 The Genomic Landscape of Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) Mutant Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 617. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Biology, Cytogenetics, and Molecular Markers in Diagnosis and Prognosis: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
AML, Diseases, Myeloid Malignancies
Monday, December 7, 2020, 7:00 AM-3:30 PM

Hassan Awada, MD1, Arda Durmaz2*, Carmelo Gurnari, MD3*, Misam Zawit, MBBS1*, Sunisa Kongkiatkamon, MD1*, Simona Pagliuca, MD1, Cassandra M. Kerr, MS4*, Hetty E. Carraway, MD, MBA5, Aziz Nazha, MD6, Mikkael A. Sekeres, MD, MS7, Jaroslaw P. Maciejewski, MD, PhD4 and Valeria Visconte, PhD1

1Department of Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH
2Department of Systems biology and Bioinformatics, CWRU, cleveland
3Department of Translational Hematology and Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH
4Department of Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH
5Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Leukemia Program, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH
6Leukemia Program, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH
7Leukemia Program, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH

Mutations in tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes are both potentially therapeutically actionable in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Wilms' Tumor 1 (WT1) gene is located on 11p13 and encodes a zinc finger transcription factor which has been found to be overexpressed and mutated in AML. In normal development, WT1 is only expressed in a small subset of hematopoietic stem cells. While its overexpression suggests an oncogenic role, the invariable presence of mutations in the cysteine-histidine zinc finger domains indicates a tumor suppressor function, similar to that in WAGR syndrome/11p deletion syndrome in which it was first discovered. Like its unknown function in AML, the clinical significance and genetic associations of WT1 mutations have been also controversial. Although studies of WT1 mutations in AML have been conducted, the lack of solid clinical and molecular characterization of large WT1-mutant (WT1MT) AML cohort has hampered its definition.

In this study, we took advantage of a compendia of genomic results from Cleveland Clinic and publicly available data of 2188 AML patients (primary (p)AML, n= 1636; secondary (s)AML, n= 433; therapy-related (t)AML, n= 119, excluding cases with acute promyelocytic leukemia, MLL-rearrangement, and core-binding factor AML). While several reports only focused on cytogenetic normal AML (CN-AML), which represented 61% of our cohort, we additionally included all other cytogenetic risk groups. In total, WT1 mutations were detected in 5% (114/2188) of patients. WT1 mutations were enriched in pAML (85%) compared to sAML (11%) and tAML (4%). Thirty-nine patients (13%) carried more than 1 WT1 mutation. WT1MT were younger [59 vs 64 years, P=0.0002] and more often females (55% vs 45%, P=0.03) as compared to WT1 wild type (WT1WT) patients. Univariate analyses of baseline parameters showed that WT1MT AML had a more proliferative phenotype with a higher WBC [15.1 vs 9.5 x109/L, P=0.03] and bone marrow blast percentages [73 vs 59%, P=0.002] and with lower platelet counts [44 vs 56 x109/L, P=0.008] compared to WT1WT cases. In the WT1MT cohort, 70% had a normal karyotype, with complex karyotype being significantly less frequent vs WT1WT patients [4 vs 16%, P=0.001]. The most common cytogenetic abnormalities in WT1MT patients included +8 (8%) followed by -9/del(9q) (3%) and -7/del(7q) (3%). Only 1 patient carried inv(3)/t(3;3) or -17/del(17p). In sum, no statistical differences in cytogenetics were found between WT1MT vs WT1WT AML patients. Next, identified mutational signatures of WT1MT patients. A panel of 44 myeloid genes and their hotspot configurations were selected according to their relevance in AML. In comparison to WT1WT AML patients, multivariate analyses showed that WT1MT patients had higher odds of biallelic CEBPA (12 vs 3%; P=0.009) and FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations (FLT3ITD, 31 vs 16%; P=0.01) but lower odds of SRSF2 mutations (2 vs 9%, P=0.04). Since FLT3ITD has been previously described to be associated with WT1 mutations, we also focused on investigating whether mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) were frequent in WT1MT as well. Although we found increased percentages of FLT3TKD (11%) among the WT1MT patients compared to WT1WT cohort (8%), this difference did not reach statistical significance. To uncover multifactor lesions (cytogenetic and/ or additional molecular lesions) of prognostic importance, we performed survival analyses. Although the combination of WT1 mutations and FLT3TKD shortened overall survival (OS) by 2-times in WT1MT patients vs WT1WT cases with FLT3TKD (23.7 vs 45.9 months), this result was not significant (P=0.1). In addition, the concurrent presence of other cytogenetic and molecular features didn’t reveal significant impact on OS.

In sum, using an adequately powered cohort, our study of the genomic landscape of WT1MT AML patients identified its genomic associations and their clinical and prognostic inferences. The application of advanced machine learning methods to large datasets of WT1MT AML patients might be crucial to capture the complex genomic interactions of WT1 gene in AML.

Disclosures: Carraway: Stemline: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Other: Independent Advisory Committe (IRC); Jazz: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; BMS: Consultancy, Other: Research support, Speakers Bureau; ASTEX: Other: Independent Advisory Committe (IRC); Takeda: Other: Independent Advisory Committe (IRC). Nazha: MEI: Other: Data monitoring Committee; Novartis: Speakers Bureau; Incyte: Speakers Bureau; Jazz: Research Funding. Sekeres: Pfizer: Consultancy; BMS: Consultancy; Takeda/Millenium: Consultancy. Maciejewski: Alexion, BMS: Speakers Bureau; Novartis, Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria.

*signifies non-member of ASH