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2244 MASS-FIX for the Diagnosis of Plasma Cell Disorders: A Single Institution Experience of 4118 Patients

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 651. Myeloma: Biology and Pathophysiology, excluding Therapy: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
multiple myeloma, Adult, Diseases, smoldering myeloma, Biological Processes, Technology and Procedures, Plasma Cell Disorders, Lymphoid Malignancies, Clinically relevant, proteomics
Sunday, December 6, 2020, 7:00 AM-3:30 PM

Patrick Mellors1, Surendra Dasari, PhD2*, Mindy Kohlhagen3*, Bonnie Kaye Arendt3*, Morie Gertz4, Shaji K. Kumar, MD4, Francis K. Buadi, MB, CHB4*, Maria Alice V. Willrich, PhD3*, John A. Lust, MD, PhD5, Prashant Kapoor, MD4, Martha Q. Lacy, MD4, David Dingli, MD, PhD4, Yi L. Hwa, NP5, Amie Fonder, PA-C, MS5*, Miriam A. Hobbs, APRN, CNP, DNP5*, Suzanne R. Hayman, MD5, Taxiarchis Kourelis, MD4, Rahma M Warsame, MD6, Eli Muchtar, MD4*, Nelson Leung, MD5, Ronald S. Go, MD7, Yi Lin, MD, PhD5, Wilson I Gonsalves, MD4, Mustaqeem Siddiqui, MD5*, Robert A. Kyle, MD4, S. Vincent Rajkumar, MD4, David L. Murray, MD, PhD3* and Angela Dispenzieri, MD5*

1Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
2Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
4Mayo Clinic Rochester, Division of Hematology, Rochester, MN
5Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
6Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
7Mayo Clinic Rochester, Division of Hematology, Onalaska, WI

Introduction: Since 2018, immunoenrichment-based matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), termed MASS-FIX, has replaced immunofixation for the detection and isotyping of serum monoclonal proteins at Mayo Clinic. MASS-FIX has advantages including increased sensitivity, specificity, and the ability to distinguish therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Herein, we report the laboratory characteristics and distribution of diagnoses of patients tested clinically at Mayo Clinic.

Methods: MASS-FIX was performed on patient samples as previously described (Kohlhagen et. al. Clin Chem Lab 2020). Demographics and laboratory data, including quantitative M-spike, serum free light chains (FLC), and quantitative immunoglobulins at the time of MASS-FIX were recorded. For patients with multiple samples during the study period, only the initial MASS-FIX was evaluated. We identified 9195 unique patients with MASS-FIX performed between 7/24/2018 and 3/6/2020. Seven-thousand nine hundred and forty-six patients provided consent for study enrollment, and 7689 had data available on index diagnosis. Given considerable variability in the interpretation of diagnostic criteria for light chain (LC) MGUS, patients with this diagnosis (1360, 18%) were excluded. Patients were considered to have negative results (2211 in total) on MASS-FIX if: 1) no monoclonal protein was identified (1081, 49%); 2) the interpretation was “cannot rule out monoclonal protein” (945, 43%); 3) multiple, nonspecific spectral peaks were identified consistent with immune reconstitution (29, 1%); or 4) the only monoclonal protein identified was consistent with a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (156, 7%).

Results: The final cohort consisted of 4118 patients with a positive MASS-FIX and 2211 patients with a negative MASS-FIX, all in the setting of underlying PCDs. Figure 1 illustrates the numbers and percentages of patients who are MASS-FIX positive versus MASS-FIX negative by diagnosis. MGUS and multiple myeloma (MM) were the most common diagnoses overall, and both were more common in the MASS-FIX positive cohort. More than 90% of patients with Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (WM), smoldering WM, smoldering MM, and cold agglutinin disease were positive by MASS-FIX.

For MASS-FIX positive patients, IgG isotype was identified in 2575 patients (63%), IgA in 703 (17%) and IgM in 710 (17%). Bence Jones proteinemia was identified in 283 patients (7%) with lambda restriction being the most common (57%). 3625 patients (88%) had a monoclonal pattern, 228 patients (6%) had a bi-clonal pattern, and 7 (<1%) had a tri-clonal pattern. The majority of patients (58%) were kappa LC restricted by MASS-FIX, 222 (5%) had N-glycosylated LC, and 2 patients (<1%) had a heavy chain with no light chain.

Conclusions: This single institution experience illustrates the practicality of MASS-FIX in detecting and following monoclonal proteins for a wide range of PCDs in a tertiary center. In this cohort, the percentage of patients who were MASS-FIX positive varied by diagnosis, reflecting cross sectional sampling of patients throughout their disease course.

Disclosures: Gertz: Research to Practice: Other; Springer Publishing: Patents & Royalties; Aurora Bio: Other; Johnson and Johnson: Speakers Bureau; Sanofi: Other; Amgen: Other: personal fee; Appellis: Other: personal fee; Annexon: Other: personal fee; Spectrum: Other: personal fee, Research Funding; Janssen: Other: personal fee; Prothena: Other: personal fee; Alnylam: Other: personal fee; Ionis/Akcea: Other: personal fee; Proclara: Other; DAVA oncology: Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Other; Teva: Speakers Bureau; Abbvie: Other; Physicians Education Resource: Other: personal fee; Medscape: Other: personal fee, Speakers Bureau. Kumar: AbbVie: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Dr. Reddy's Laboratories: Honoraria; Takeda: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Carsgen: Other, Research Funding; Karyopharm: Consultancy; Merck: Consultancy, Research Funding; Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Other: Independent Review Committee; IRC member; Kite Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding; Janssen Oncology: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Amgen: Consultancy, Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments, Research Funding; Genecentrix: Consultancy; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy; Novartis: Research Funding; MedImmune: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding; Tenebio: Other, Research Funding; Cellectar: Other; Genentech/Roche: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments; Celgene/BMS: Other: Research funding for clinical trials to the institution, Consulting/Advisory Board participation with no personal payments. Kapoor: Sanofi: Consultancy, Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Research Funding; GlaxoSmithKline: Research Funding; Cellectar: Consultancy; Janssen: Research Funding; Celgene: Honoraria. Dingli: Karyopharm Therapeutics: Research Funding; Bristol Myers Squibb: Research Funding; Rigel: Consultancy; Alexion: Consultancy; Sanofi-Genzyme: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy; Apellis: Consultancy; Millenium: Consultancy. Lin: Merck: Research Funding; Legend BioTech: Consultancy; Juno: Consultancy; Bluebird Bio: Consultancy, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Research Funding; Gamida Cells: Consultancy; Takeda: Research Funding; Sorrento: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Vineti: Consultancy. Murray: The Binding Site: Patents & Royalties: Patent Use of Mass Spec to identify monoclonal proteins licensed to The Binding Site. Dispenzieri: Alnylam, Intellia, Janssen, Takeda, Pfizer, Prothena, Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH