Session: 636. Myelodysplastic Syndromes—Basic and Translational Studies
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
AML, Diseases, MDS, Myeloid Malignancies
Aim: We performed an exhaustive functional study of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) obtained from a comparatively large cohort of t-MN patients and carefully selected control populations to evaluate the long-term damage induced by cytotoxic therapy to BM microenvironment and its impact on malignant and normal haematopoiesis.
Methods: Four different cohorts were used: (1) t-MN, in which myeloid malignancy occurred after CT/RT for a previous cancer (n=18); (2) patients with multiple cancer and in which a myeloid neoplasm developed following an independent cancer which was not treated with CT/RT (MC-MN; n=10); (3) primary MN (p-MN; n=7) untreated and without any prior cancer or CT/RT; (4) age-matched controls (HC; n=17). Morphology, proliferation, cellular senescence, differentiation potential and γH2AX DNA damage response was performed. Stem/progenitor supportive capacity was assessed by co-culturing haematopoietic stem cells on MSC feeder-layer in long-term culture initiating assay (LTC-IC). Cytokine measurements were performed using 38-plex magnetic bead panel (Millipore) and RNA sequencing libraries were prepared with Illumina TruSeq Total RNA protocol for 150bp paired-end sequencing on a NextSeq500 instrument. Functional enrichment analysis was performed using EnrichR software.
Results: MSC cultured from t-MN patients were significantly different from HC, p-MN and MC-MN MSC according to multiple parameters. They exhibited aberrant morphology consisting of large, rounded and less adhesive cells compared to typical spindle-shaped morphology observed with controls. MSC from myeloid neoplasm also showed impaired proliferation, senescence, osteo- and adipogenic differentiation with t-MN MSC showing the greatest differences. DNA repair was dramatically impaired compared to p-MN and HC (Fig.1A). Importantly, these aberrant t-MN MSC were not able to support normal or autologous in vitro long-term haematopoiesis (Fig.1B).
The biological characteristic and poor haematopoietic supportive capacity of MSC could be “cell-intrinsic” or driven by an altered paracrine inflammatory microenvironment. Interestingly, several inflammatory cytokines were higher in t-MN compared with marrow interstitial fluid obtained from p-MN patients (Fig.1Ci) and many of these including Fractalkine, IFNα2, IL-7 and G-CSF were also significantly higher in t-MN MSC conditional media (Fig.1Cii). Together, this data suggest that t-MN microenvironment is distinct from p-MN with paracrine production of pro-inflammatory milieu that may contribute to poor HSC supportive capacity.
Preliminary whole transcriptome analysis revealed differential gene expression between t-MN and HC (Fig.1Di) and p-MN MSC. Importantly, the deregulated genes play critical role in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, and cellular senescence pathways explaining phenotypical characteristic of t-MN MSC (Fig.1Dii). Moreover CXCL12 expression, a key regulator of haematopoiesis, was significantly lower in t-MN compared to HC (p=0.002) and p-MN MSC (p=0.009), thus explaining poor HSC supportive capacity.
The key difference between the p-MN, MC-MN and t-MN is prior exposure to CT/RT. To study this we obtained MSC from two t-MN patients for whom we had samples at the time of their primary cancer, post high-dose chemotherapy and at the time of t-MN. MSC displayed aberrant proliferation and differentiation capacity after high-dose cytotoxic therapy (2 to 4 years prior to developing t-MN) and remained aberrant at t-MN diagnosis (Fig.1E).
Conclusions: BM-MSC from t-MN patients are significantly abnormal compared with age-matched controls and typical myeloid neoplasm. Importantly, prior CT/RT leads to long-term irreversible damage to the BM microenvironment which potentially contributes to t-MN pathogenesis.
Disclosures: Hughes: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Hiwase: Novartis Australia: Research Funding.
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