Session: 617. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Biology, Cytogenetics, and Molecular Markers in Diagnosis and Prognosis: Single Cell Profiling and Novel molecular Markers
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
AML, Diseases, Myeloid Malignancies
In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of 338 genes in pediatric patients with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) AML (n = 56; JPLSG AML-05 study) alongside data from TARGET cohort pediatric MLL-r AML (n = 104) and non-MLL-r AML (n = 581). In addition, mutation data and clinical information from adult MLL-r AML patients (n=81), collected at the MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, were also analyzed.
The frequencies of driver mutations differed according to MLL fusion partner genes in pediatric MLL-r AML patients (JPLSG AML-05 study + TARGET cohort, n = 160). FLT3 mutations or internal tandem duplications were more frequent in patients with MLL-MLLT3 (27/63, 42.9%) and MLL-MLLT1 (4/11, 36.4%). RAS pathway genes were more frequently mutated in specific groups, such as KRAS in those with MLL-MLLT10 (17/37, 45.9%), MLL-MLLT4(AFDN) (5/12, 41.7%), MLL-MLLT1 (3/11, 27.3%), and other (4/14, 28.6%) fusions, and NRAS in those with MLL-ELL (10/23, 43.5%) and MLL-MLLT4 (4/12, 33.3%) fusions. Other pathway mutations also coexisted with specific partner genes; SETD2 mutations were frequent in patients with MLL-MLLT4 fusions (4/12, 33.3%), and STAG2 mutations were frequent in those with MLL-ELL (6/23, 26.1%).
Next, we examined the prognostic significance of each driver mutation. In pediatric MLL-r AML patients (n = 160), among eight frequently mutated genes (≥ 5%: ≥ 8 patients with mutations) and one copy number change (trisomy 8), only KRAS mutations were significantly associated with adverse prognoses, in terms of both event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Compared with patients without KRAS mutations (n = 118, KRAS-WT), those with KRAS mutations (n = 42, KRAS-MT) had significantly inferior prognoses (KRAS-WT vs. KRAS-MT; 5 year (5y)-EFS: 51.8% vs 18.3%, P < 0.0001; 5y-OS: 67.3% vs 44.3%, P = 0.003). The adverse prognostic impact of KRAS mutation was confirmed in adult MLL-r AML. By contrast, there were no significant differences in EFS or OS (KRAS-WT vs. KRAS-MT; 5y-EFS: 50.6% vs 54.5%, P = 0.55; 5y-OS: 67.1% vs 64.9%, P = 0.84) between patients with KRAS-WT (n = 533) and KRAS-MT (n = 48) non-MLL-r AML.
We also analyzed the prognostic significance of KRAS mutations according to MLL fusion partner. First, the prognoses of patients were compared for each fusion partner gene. Consistent with a previous report, patients with MLL-MLLT10 (n = 37), MLL-MLLT4 (n = 12), and MLL-MLLT1 (n = 11) had poor prognoses compared to those with other fusion types. Therefore, we dichotomized patients into high- (MLLT10 + MLLT4 + MLLT1, n = 60) and intermediate/low- (MLLT3 + ELL + Others, n = 100) risk groups. The frequency of KRAS mutation was significantly elevated in the high-risk group (26/60, 43.3%) relative to the intermediate/low-risk group (16/100, 16.0%; P = 0.0002). Further, in the high-risk group, KRAS-MT patients (n = 26) had significantly adverse prognoses compared with KRAS-WT patients (n = 34; KRAS-WT vs. KRAS-MT; 5y-EFS: 31.5% vs 10.3%, P = 0.007; 5y-OS: 52.4% vs 40.5%, P = 0.16). Moreover, KRAS-MT patients in the intermediate/low-risk group (n = 16) had significantly adverse prognoses compared with KRAS-WT patients (n = 84; KRAS-WT vs. KRAS-MT; 5y-EFS: 60.3% vs 31.3%, P = 0.02; 5y-OS: 73.4% vs 50.0%, P = 0.04).
Finally, we investigated whether KRAS mutation is an independent prognostic factor in patients with pediatric MLL-r AML. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed including the following variables: age, WBC, MLL fusion gene, driver mutations, and trisomy 8. The results indicated that KRAS mutation was the only prognostic factor predicting both poor EFS (hazard ratio (HR), 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35–3.59; P = 0.002) and poor OS (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.01–3.31; P = 0.045), whereas there were no statistically significant findings for MLL fusions.
These results suggest that mutations in MLL-rearranged AML are associated with MLL fusion partners, and KRAS mutations frequently coexist with high-risk MLL fusions. KRAS mutations are distinct adverse prognostic factors in MLL-r AML, regardless of risk subgroup, therefore, potentially useful for accurate treatment stratification.
Disclosures: Ogawa: Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Research Funding; Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd.: Research Funding; Eisai Co., Ltd.: Research Funding; Asahi Genomics Co., Ltd.: Current equity holder in private company; KAN Research Institute, Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Chordia Therapeutics, Inc.: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.
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