Session: 603. Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressors: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Leukemia, AML, Adult, Diseases, CLL, Genetic Disorders, MDS, MPN, Biological Processes, Lymphoid Malignancies, Study Population, Myeloid Malignancies, Clinically relevant, senescence
Of 3323 consecutive patients who underwent NGS, 2770 patients had a hematologic malignancy (lymphoid n = 1299, myeloid n = 934, and both lymphoid and myeloid n = 537), while 553 patients were evaluated for non-malignant cytopenias. All 57 patients (2.06%) carrying either a POT1 disease-associated variant or variant of uncertain significance had a hematologic malignancy compared to no identified POT1 variants in 553 patients with benign cytopenias (OR = 23.5, p < 0.001), suggesting that the presence of POT1 variants was predictive of a hematologic malignancy. Of 57 patients, 33 had lymphoid malignancies, 23 had myeloid neoplasms, and 2 had a lymphoid and myeloid neoplasm (Fig 1).
Patient variants were classified as germline or somatic using constitutional DNA sequencing, POT1 emergence/disappearance over time, or POT1 maintenance in remission. In the absence of these data, likely germline or likely somatic designations were made by assessing variant allele frequencies against clinical/pathologic characteristics. 18 patients (33%) were found to have germline or likely germline POT1 variants (29% and 42% in the lymphoid and myeloid malignancy groups, respectively). Another 6 patients (11%) had variants whose germline status could not be determined. Of the 17 unique germline POT1 variants, 10 were missense and located within mapped functional protein domains, while 7 were classified as predicted loss-of-function (pLOF) due to a disruption of start, premature stop, frameshift, or spice site alteration. Patients with hematological malignancies had a ~5-8x increased odds of having a germline pLOF POT1 variant compared to cancer-free individuals in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD, n = 113,108 exomes, OR = 7.5, p < 0.001) or in the Penn Medicine BioBank (PMBB, n = 7877, OR = 5.0, p = 0.010), with a prevalence of 0.25% compared to 0.03% and 0.05%, respectively. Germline pLOF POT1 variants were significantly more enriched in patients with myeloid (gnomAD: OR = 6.1, p = 0.02) and lymphoid (gnomAD: OR = 9.8, p < 0.001; PMBB: OR = 6.5, p = 0.004) malignancies.
In 33 patients with lymphoid malignancies and POT1 variants, the most common diagnoses were CLL/SLL (n = 21, germline n = 6, somatic n = 12), CD5- CD10- indolent B cell neoplasms (n = 4, germline n = 1, somatic n = 3), and multiple myeloma (n = 3, all somatic) (Table 1). Lymphoid malignancies with a germline POT1 variant had a relative paucity of additional mutations; in contrast, somatic POT1 variants frequently co-occurred with other mutations, most commonly with TP53 (Fig 2, n = 5, 23%). Among 23 patients with myeloid malignancies, patients with germline POT1 variants developed malignancies at a significantly younger age compared to those whose POT1 variants were somatic (median age 59.5 vs 70.5 years, p = 0.04). The most common diagnosis in patients with myeloid neoplasms carrying germline POT1 variants was MPN (germline n = 5, somatic n = 1). AML, MDS/MPN, and MDS occurred in 4, 3, and 1 patients respectively. All patients with myeloid neoplasms had additional disease-associated mutations, with the most common co-occurring variants in TET2 (n = 7), JAK2 (n = 6, co-occurring with 50% of germline POT1 myeloid variants), and NRAS (n = 6).
In conclusion, this is the first comprehensive analysis of POT1 variants in an unselected hospital-based population undergoing molecular testing for variants associated with hematologic malignancies. Our results show that the presence of POT1 variants is predictive of having a hematologic neoplasm and that over 30% of POT1 variants in hematologic malignancy patients are germline. Our study expands the spectrum of POT1-associated familial neoplasms and highlights the needs for better recognition of familial hematologic cancer syndromes.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.