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4425 Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma: An Atypical Presentation with IgG Monoclonal Gammopathy

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 623. Mantle Cell, Follicular, and Other Indolent B Cell Lymphomas: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Diseases, Lymphoid Malignancies
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Nagapratap Ganta, MD1*, Varsha Gupta, MBBS2, Fnu Anamika, MD1*, Akshit Chitkara, MD3*, Sheilabi Seeburun4* and Ruchi Bhatt4*

1Hackensack Meridian Ocean University Medical Center, Brick, NJ
2Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune, NJ
3University of California Riverside, San Bernardino, CA
4Jersey Shore University Medical Center, Neptune


Lymphocytic lymphoma (LPL) is a rare type of low-grade mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, characterized by a monoclonal population of B lymphocytes, lymphoplasmacytic cells, and plasma cells. In around 95% of LPL cases, the serum immunoglobulin M (IgM) paraprotein is increased, which is correlated to Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia (WM), a clinicopathological disease. Only around 5% of LPL cases are associated with the serum paraproteins immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin A (IgA), or light chains alone, or are not linked to a paraprotein. Non-IgM LPLs have a wide range of clinical and pathological features, and MYD88 L265P mutations can occur, though at a lower frequency than WM. Hence, MYD88 testing is advised for prospective therapeutic purposes.

Case Presentation

A 69-year-old male was referred to a hematologist for uncontrolled epistaxis and periorbital edema. On initial workup, he had high total protein, elevated globulin, hypoalbuminemia, anemia, and proteinuria. Further investigation revealed a high IgG level with low IgM, IgA, and complement levels. Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP): Increased total protein, decreased alpha two and beta globulins with a large monoclonal protein peak migrating in the gamma region, which accounts for 4.77 g/dl of the total 5.38g/dl gamma. Elevated Kappa Quantitative Free Light Chains of 355.39 (3.30 - 19.40mg/L), Decreased Lambda Quantitative Free Light Chains of 1.51 (5.71 - 26.30mg/L), Elevated Kappa Lambda Free Light Chains Ratio of 235.36 (0.26 - 1.65). Serum ImmunoFixation Electrophoresis demonstrated IgG-type kappa monoclonal protein with an additional faint band in IgG kappa. X-Ray skeletal survey showed a possible small lytic area in the inferior aspect of the C2 vertebral body, prompting him to have a cervical spine MRI which revealed no lytic lesions but an 18 mm vertebral body hemangioma inside T2.

Molecular testing was positive for MYD88 Mutation c.794T>C (p. L265P) and negative for CXCR4 mutation. Plasma cell myeloma prognostic panel and chromosome analysis were normal. Flow cytometry of bone marrow aspirate showed a kappa light chain restricted plasma cell population (1.6% of total cells) with the following immunophenotype: positive for CD138, CD38, CD45, and negative for CD19, CD20, CD56, CD 117, and lambda light chains. The B-cell population showed kappa light chain restriction with the following immunophenotype: positive for CD19, CD20, and kappa light chains and negative for CD5, CD10, CD11c, CD23, and lambda light chains (Image 2). PET-CT of the whole body was negative for the extension of the disease. Transfusion with the two least incompatible PRBCs had little effect. However, plasmapheresis significantly improved his hemoglobin level by less than 7g/dl. A bone marrow biopsy revealed he had LPL with IgG Monoclonal Gammopathy (Image 1). He received one cycle of CyBorD (Cyclophosphamide, Bortezomib, Dexamethasone), followed by seven cycles of KCD (Carfilzomib, Cyclophosphamide, Dexamethasone) and Rituximab.

The patient was diagnosed with low-grade B cell lymphoma with plasmocytic differentiation/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, with MYD88 mutation c.794T>C (p. L265P) positivity and CXCR4 mutation negativity. After plasmapheresis, the IgG level dropped to 1958. Follow-up SPEP revealed decreased alpha2 and beta globulins, decreased free lambda light chains, and increased K/L ratio. The patient was treated with Acalabrutinib, and his anemia, epistaxis, and coagulopathy resolved. Repeat PET-CT scan revealed no evidence of illness progression.


LPL is not always linked with IgM monoclonal gammopathy; it can also be associated with IgG or IgA monoclonal gammopathy, light chains alone, or no monoclonal paraprotein. Non-IgM LPL has a high prevalence of extramedullary involvement, a lower rate of MYD88 mutation, and few hyper viscosity symptoms. The MYD88 mutation does not allow WM and Non-IgM LPL to be distinguished from other lymphoproliferative disorders with similar clinical and immunophenotypic features. The case described is unique as the patient has high levels of IgG (11,200) at presentation. In contrast to our patient, who has LPL with IgG Monoclonal gammopathy, approximately 95 percent of LPL patients have IgM Monoclonal gammopathy, which corresponds with WM. As a result, clinicians should be on the lookout for LPL that lacks an IgM Monoclonal Paraprotein.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH