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4719 Upfront Radiation Therapy (RT) for Post-Stem Cell Transplant Multiple Myeloma (MM) Patients with Oligo-Relapse/Progressive Disease: Factors Associated with Favorable Outcomes

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 652. Multiple Myeloma: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Clinical Research
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Beatrice Fregonese, MPH*, Brandon S. Imber, MD, MA, Alexandra Dreyfuss, MD, MSTR*, Carla Hajj, MD* and Joachim Yahalom, MD

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY

Introduction: Relapsed or refractory disease post-stem cell transplant (SCT) for Multiple Myeloma (MM) can be clinically challenging. For localized relapses, radiation therapy (RT) can represent an attractive treatment modality. However, data on outcomes with RT remains scarce. We investigated the impact of RT as a treatment modality in the setting of oligo-relapse and oligo-progressive plasmacytomas after SCT and explored prognostic factors associated with favorable long-term outcome

Methods: In this single-institution retrospective analysis, we identified 31 MM patients who underwent upfront RT for oligo-relapse or oligo-progressive MM after SCT between 2000 and 2021. Patients were excluded if they had received systemic therapy for evidence of concurrent biochemical relapse prior to RT start. The treatment responses to stem cell transplantation (SCT) and RT were assessed following the response criteria established by the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG), which includes the categories: complete response (CR), very good partial response (VGPR), partial response (PR), minimal response (MR), stable disease (SD) and progressive disease (PD). Additionally, we utilized the R-ISS staging system to classify patients into Standard-Risk (R-ISS I), Intermediate-Risk (R-ISS II), and High-Risk (R-ISS III) groups, to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of treatment efficacy and outcomes.

Results: Disease and treatment characteristics for the cohort are summarized in Figure 1. Of the 27 patients with imaging available prior to SCT, 67% (18) were assessed with PET, 22% (6) with skeletal survey, 3.7% (1) with MRI/CT, 3.7% with CT, and 3.7% (1) with x-ray. Following SCT, 48% (13) of patients were noted to have radiographic progression, 23% (7) had sCR, 23% (7) had a CR, 10% had a serologic CR, and 45% (14) had a VGPR. Among the 18 patients with radiographic evaluation (in addition to bone marrow biopsy and/or labs) post-SCT, 67% (12) were in radiographic CR at time of re-staging. Median times from SCT to new site of oligo-relapsed disease (20, 64.5%) and pre-existing but inactive sites of oligo-relapsed MM (4, 12.9%) were 31 months (3.2-117.5) and 9 months (3.4-15.9), respectively. Oligo-progressive MM, defined as active sites of disease both pre- and post-SCT were present in 22.6% (7) of patients. Prior to RT, 94% (29) had PET/CT imaging, with a median SUV of 4.4 (2.6-7.2) for target lesions. Solitary bone (77%) and extramedullary (23%) disease were treated to median dose of 30 Gy (8-49 Gy). At first disease response assessment post-RT, 77% (24) of which was done with PET/CT imaging , 42% (13) achieved CR. Among the 18 patients that did not achieve CR, 15 subsequently achieved CR at a median time of 7 months (1.7-44.5). A majority of patients (87%) received systemic therapy post-RT, with a median number of lines of therapy post-RT of 3 (1-17). The remaining 13% (4) of patients did not receive additional systemic therapy post-RT and did not experience progression. Median overall survival for the full cohort was 38 months (3.5-37.9).

Conclusions: Utilizing modern systemic therapies in combination with post-transplant RT for patients with limited refractory or relapsed MM is a promising therapeutic approach. For those that remain refractory or relapse in a single site RT local control merits consideration supported by our report. Further investigation to identify patients at highest risk of progression and who may therefore benefit most from RT would be valuable. We plan to conduct additional analyses on the radiographic characteristics that may portend high risk disease, with the ultimate goal of developing well-defined criteria for giving RT earlier.

Disclosures: Imber: GT Medical Technologies: Honoraria. Yahalom: Convergent R.N.R Ltd.: Other: Provision of Services (uncompensated).

*signifies non-member of ASH