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4843 Efficacy and Safety of CD19-Specific CAR-T Cell Therapy Following Immunochemotherapy in Newly Diagnosed B-Cell Lymphoma Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 704. Cellular Immunotherapies: Early Phase and Investigational Therapies: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, clinical trials, Lymphomas, Clinical Research, B Cell lymphoma, Combination therapy, Diseases, Therapies, Lymphoid Malignancies
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Yulan Zhou1*, Yulong Jin1*, Dexiang Ji, MD2*, Fancong Kong1*, Yu Peng3*, Min Yu1*, Shixuan Wang1*, Xiaoye Cheng1* and Fei Li, MD2

1Center of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China
2The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China
3Jiangxi Province Children's Hospital, Jiangxi Province Nanchang City, China

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) represents a grave and potentially fatal systemic inflammatory condition. Lymphoma associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (LAHS), as a common type in secondary HLH, suffers the worst outcome among sHLH. B cell Lymphoma associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (B-LAHS) typically presents as high-risk lymphoma and is associated with a poorer prognosis compared to B cell lymphoma without HLH with standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy. As a result, there is an urgent need for more effective therapeutic strategies. Recent advancements in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy have demonstrated remarkable responses in relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL), as well as in some high-risk newly diagnosed B-cell lymphoma. However, There have been no clinical reports regarding the application of CAR-T cell treatment as part of first-line therapy in B-LAHS. We assessed the effectiveness and safety of autologous anti-CD19 CAR-T cell therapy following an immunochemotherapeutic regimen based on R-DEP (Rituximab-doxorubicin-etoposide-methylprednisolone) as a first-line treatment option for patients with B-LAHS. As of 1 July 2023, a cohort of 13 patients diagnosed with B-LAHS(with 3 cases enrolled before registration for clinical trials)was recruited for evaluation and met the criteria for assessing treatment efficacy at our institution. The overall response rate (ORR) for HLH was 100% (with 7 cases achieving complete response and 6 cases achieving partial response) prior to infuse CAR-T cells and the ORR for lymphoma also was 100% (with 10 cases achieving complete response and 3 cases achieving partial response) on the time of a month after CAR-T cell infusion. As of the follow-up date on 1 July 2023 (with a median follow-up time of 14 months), all 13 patients were still alive, 12 cases maintained sustained remission, while 1 case experienced relapse at 16 months after CAR-T cell infusion. The median overall survival (OS) has not been reached, and the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 31.5 months. To provide comparison, we included a group of 26 patients diagnosed with B-LAHS who did not receive CAR-T cell therapy during the same period. The non-CAR-T group demonstrated a significantly lower median OS of 5.93 months and a median PFS of 4.43 months, highlighting the superior prognosis of the CAR-T group (p < 0.001). Regarding adverse events, the CAR-T group exhibited a cytokine release syndrome (CRS) incidence of 53.8% (7/13) and an immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) incidence of 30.7% (4 /13), all of which were classified as grade 1. None of the patients experienced non-hematologic toxicity of grade ≥3. While all 13 patients developed cytopenias, hematologic toxicity reactions ≥ grade 3 were observed in 76.9% (10 /13) of patients, but blood cell counts recovered within 3 weeks. Robust expansion of CAR T-cells occurred in all patients, with a median time to peak expansion of 8 days. Importantly, no exacerbation of hemophagocytic syndrome occurred following CAR-T cell infusion, and no patients succumbed to adverse events. In conclusion, our findings suggest that CD19 CAR-T cell treatment exhibits high efficacy as part of first-line therapy for B-LAHS, with a manageable safety profile.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH