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4489 Clinical Pathology Characteristics of 221 Pediatric Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma-3 Years Follow up and Experience from China Net Childhood Lymphoma(CNCL)Clinically Relevant Abstract

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 627. Aggressive Lymphomas: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Lymphomas, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, epidemiology, Clinical Practice (Health Services and Quality), T Cell lymphoma, pediatric, Diseases, aggressive lymphoma, Lymphoid Malignancies, Study Population, Human
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Shuang Huang1*, Xiaomei Yang2*, Yanlong Duan1*, Ling Jin1*, Fu Li2*, Mincui Zheng3*, Pan Wu3*, Ying Liu4*, Bo Hu4*, Yunpeng Dai5*, Guotao Guan5*, Ansheng Liu6*, Shuang Qin6*, Lirong Sun7*, Jian Jiang7*, Wei Liu, MD8*, Jianwen Zhou8*, Jian Wang9*, Lijun Qu9*, Leping Zhang10*, Yueping Jia10*, Xiaojun Yuan11*, Yushuang Dong11*, Baoxi Zhang12*, Lian Jiang13*, ZhuJun Wang14*, XiGe Wang15*, Shuquan Zhuang16*, Chunju Zhou17*, Zifen Gao18*, Jing Yang1* and Yonghong Zhang4*

1Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
2Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Shandong University Affiliated Hospital (Jinan Children's Hospital), Jinan, China
3Department of Hematology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha, China
4Department of Pediatric Lymphoma, Beijing Gobroad Boren Hospital, Beijing, China
5Department of Pediatrics Hematology and Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China
6Department of Hematologic Oncology, Xi'an Children's Hospital, Xi'an, China
7Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
8Department of Hematology & Oncology, Zhengzhou Children's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
9Department of Hematology and Oncology, Anhui Provincial Children’s Hospital, Hefei, China
10Department of Pediatrics, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China
11Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
12Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China
13Department of Pediatrics, The fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China
14Department of Pediatrics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
15Department of Pediatrics, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
16Department of Pediatric,Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China
17Department of Pathology, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China
18Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China

Objective: To investigate the clinical-pathology characteristics, risk factors, necessary for VBL maintenance therapy,through summarize the clinical data of 221 cases of pediatric Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL), treated with CNCL-ALCL-2017 witch is modify from BFM-ALCL-99 (±vincristine maintenance therapy) in China Net Childhood Lymphoma (CNCL).

Methods: Data were collected on 221 children with ALCL enrolled from CNCL at time between April 2017 to March 2023, including: numbers of cases enrolled in each single center, gender and age at the time of initial diagnosis, the first initial symptom, a delay diagnosis, the misdiagnosis disease , the site of involvement, the level of blood uric acid, the level of blood lactate dehydrogenase, the bone marrow and CNS status, tumor complication, complicated with HLH, staging and treatment subgroups, pathological subtypes, CD3 expression in tumor tissue, bone marrow and peripheral blood ALK gene expression at initial diagnosis (qPCR + FISH), and treatment outcomes, treatment strategy(vincristine maintenance or not), time from initial diagnose to relapse, second-line treatment regimen after relapse, and treatment outcomes after relapsed. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 21.0 software.

Results: 221 cases were from 22 hospitals in China. Male = 144 cases, female = 71 cases, age range from 1-16 years (median age 8.9 years), duration from initial symptoms onset to diagnosis was 0.3-11 months (median time 1.0 months), delayed diagnosis was present in 51(23%) children (45 children were misdiagnosed with infectious diseases). Pathological subtypes were: common sub type = 150(67.8%), small cell sub type = 19(8.5%), histiocytic variant subtype = 9(4%), ALK negative subtype = 12(5.4%).others = 31(14%). CD3 expression in tumor: negative = 119, positive = 91. ALK positive by qPCR in peripheral blood at the time of the initial diagnosis = 77, ALK positive by qPCR in bone marrow = 78, bulky disease= 21, mediastinal invasion = 84, CNS invasion = 17, skin invasion = 32. tumor related HLH = 25, normal LDH level at initial diagnosis = 133, 1-fold elevated = 45, 2-3-fold elevated = 39, 4-fold elevated = 2, >4-fold elevated = 2, stage I = 5, stage II = 24, stage III = 70, stage IV = 120 , leukemic stage = 2 . Grouping: group A = 1, group B = 21, group C = 191, group D = 8. Vincristine maintenance = 121. Median follow-up time was 35.4 months (0.5-74.9 months), OS at 3 years = 95.1±1.5% (95% CI = 90%-97.3%, Fig. 1), EFS at 3 years = 84.7±4.5% (95% CI = 79%-89.9%, Fig. 2), and there were a total of 23 patients with events, median time was7 months. There were 10 patients died, 5 of them quit to the treatment, median time was 5 months, and 13 patients who had an event but still alive after second line treatment. Univariate results of the 3 years EFS are detailed in Table 1, with statistically significant including (<0.05): tumor related HLH before treatment, LDH levels higher than 4 times normal and MDD positive at the beginning of the disease, and treated without VBL. The event patients are 23 cases ,the detailed in Table 2, which showed that the earlier the event occurs, the higher the mortality rate.

Conclusion: Pediatric ALCL in China is mostly found in school-age boys, and it is easy to be diagnosed as infectious diseases at the time of initial diagnosis due to high fever and elevated CRP. 87% of patients were diagnosed as late stage or high-risk group. The application of the CNCL-ALCL-2017 protocol showed a 3-year OS 84.7% and 3-year EFS 95.1%, indicating that the efficacy was significantly better than that of various centers before the multi center cooperation. The overall survival time is significantly better than the event free survival time, indicating that most patients with progression and recurrence still have a chance of re remission after second line treatment. Adverse prognostic factors include a significant increase in LDH levels at initial diagnosis, initial onset of HLH, positive MDD before treatment, and no use of vinblastine maintenance therapy. Recurrent children: The median recurrence time is 7 months, and the prognosis of early progression and recurrence is worse than that of late recurrence.

Key words: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma, Pediatric, Clinical-pathology features, Prognosis

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH