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5038 Optical Genome Mapping Allows Detection and Characterization of Cytogenetically Cryptic Oncogenic Fusions in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 803. Emerging Tools, Techniques and Artificial Intelligence in Hematology: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
assays, Clinical Practice (Health Services and Quality), clinical procedures, Technology and Procedures, molecular testing
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Gordana Raca, MD, PhD1, Alexandra E. Kovach, MD1*, Karin Miller, MD2*, Jennifer Han2*, Katherine Ma2*, Cindy Fong2*, Jianling Ji, MD, MS2*, Ryan Schmidt, MD, PhD2*, Andrew Doan, MD3* and Deepa Bhojwani, MD4

1Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
2Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
3Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
4Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA

Background: Abnormal gene fusions are predominant oncogenic drivers in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are important diagnostic and prognostic markers. However, several oncogenic fusions specific for or enriched in pediatric AML (like CBFA2T3::GLIS2, NUP98::NSD1, ETV6::MNX1 and others) are not detectable by conventional cytogenetic analysis (cytogenetically cryptic) and may not be included in fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or molecular fusion panels designed for adult patients. Optical genome mapping (OGM) is a powerful new method for genome-wide, high-resolution detection of copy number abnormalities and balanced chromosome rearrangements. This study determined the frequency of cryptic oncogenic fusions in an institutional cohort of pediatric AML cases and evaluated OGM as a method for their detection and characterization.

Methods: Retrospective review of genetic testing results was performed for 93 consecutive de novo or relapsed pediatric AML cases tested at the Children’s Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) Center for Personalized Medicine between March 2016 and July 2023. Genetic testing was performed as part of clinical care following standard procedures and consisted of karyotype analysis, FISH testing, chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis, CHLA custom sequencing panel (OncoKids®) (June 2017 onwards) and RNA-Seq fusion assay (March 2022 onwards). Cases with normal or inconclusive karyotype in which an oncogenic fusion was detected by another clinical assay were selected for OGM testing. High molecular weight DNA from peripheral blood or bone marrow samples was labeled, processed and imaged in a Saphyr System and analyzed in the Bionano Access software following the manufacturer’s recommendations (BionanoGenomics, San Diego CA).

Results: Out of 93 pediatric AML cases included in the study, a gene fusion was identified as the primary oncogenic driver in 54 (58%) and a DNA sequence variant in 11 (12%). In 28 cases (30%), the primary genetic abnormality remained undetermined after comprehensive genetic testing. In 17/54 (31%) fusion-driven cases [17/93 (18%) overall cases], the oncogenic fusion remained undetected by karyotype analysis (cryptic). OGM was completed in 13/17 fusion positive cases with non-informative karyotype; it could not be performed in 4 cases due to lack of samples (n=2) or poor DNA quality (n=2), and is still in progress for a subset of 28 unknown cases with available material. OGM analysis successfully revealed all cryptic fusions previously detected by FISH, CMA, OncoKids® and/or RNA-Seq, including NUP98::NSD1 (n=3), KMT2A::MLLT10 (n=3), KMT2A::MLLT3 (n=2) and one case each of CBFA2T3::GLIS2, NUP98::KDM5A, DEK::NUP214, MYB::GATA1 and ETV6::MNX1. Chromosomal mechanism and structure of cryptic fusions were resolved by OGM and included: intrinsically cryptic fusions due to chromosome location of partner genes (NUP98::NSD1, n=4; CBFA2T3::GLIS2, NUP98::KDM5A and ETV6::MNX1, n=1 each); complex rearrangements due to incompatible gene orientation (KMT2A::MLLT10, n=2; MYB::GATA1, n=1); three-way rearrangements involving an additional chromosome (KMT2A::MLLT3, n=2) and small insertions (KMT2A::MLLT10 and DEK::NUP214, n=1 each). OGM also matched the performance of chromosomal microarray (CMA) analysis in detection of copy number variants.

Conclusions: We confirm the significant contribution of cryptic chromosome rearrangements to pathogenesis of pediatric AML, and highlight the importance of tailored testing approaches that effectively detect highly heterogeneous fusion drivers. Our preliminary results show potential of OGM to identify clinically significant cryptic fusions in pediatric AML, and to thus markedly increase diagnostic yield compared to karyotype analysis. As a single assay that detects abnormalities currently interrogated by conventional cytogenetics, FISH and CMA, OGM may allow streamlined and more cost-effective genetic evaluation for pediatric AML.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH