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4909 Venetoclax+Azacytidine Followed By Modified BuCy Conditioning Regimen for High Risk or Refractory/Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 721. Allogeneic Transplantation: Conditioning Regimens, Engraftment and Acute Toxicities: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Lymphoid Leukemias, clinical trials, Research, ALL, Combination therapy, Clinical Research, Diseases, Therapies, Lymphoid Malignancies
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

QI Tan, MD1*, Zheng Li2*, Sifan Chen1*, Qingya Cui3*, Mengyun Li1*, Ye Zhao1*, Feng Chen1*, Depei Wu, M.D.1 and Xiaowen Tang1*

1National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Soochow University, Suzhou, China
2National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China
3Institute of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Soochow University, Suzhou, China

Background:Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the only potential curable treatment for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, for patients with high-risk or refractory relapsed (R/R) B-ALL with allo-HSCT, the three-year overall survival (OS) rate is only 5-10%, more worse in T-ALL. It is widely known that MDS patients in the high-risk group do not benefit from induction chemotherapy, the five-year OS rate is 23-39% when they received allo-HSCT. Nevertheless, relapse remains a significant cause of treatment failure after allo-HSCT, highlighting the urgent need for improved conditioning regimens that can improve prognosis and reduce relapse rates. Azacytidine (AZA) combined with Venetoclax (VEN), showed a synergistic anti-tumor activity against several hematological malignancies, Therefore, we explored AZA+VEN (VA) combined with modified BuCy(mBuCy) (semustine, cytarabine, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide) conditioning regimen and assessed the safety and effectiveness.

AimsThe aim of this study is to assess the safety, and effectiveness of the VA treatment regimen followed by mBuCy as conditioning regimen for high-risk or R/R ALL(NCT05809167) and high-risk MDS(NCT03256071) .

Methods:Patients diagnosed with high-risk or R/R ALL or high-risk MDS (IPSS-R score), undergoing VA+mBuCy as conditioning regimen, and consolidation treatment with demethylating drugs every three months after transplantation, for a total of 8-12 cycles.

Results:Patients diagnosed with high-risk or R/R ALL(n=11) or high-risk MDS (IPSS-R score)(n=8) were enrolled between January 13, 2022, and June 9, 2023.

The ALL cohort comprised of 5 Ph-negative B-ALL, 2 Ph-positive B-ALL, 3 mixed phenotype leukemias (MPAL), and one T-lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (T-ALL/LBL). There were 7 males and 4 females, with a median age of 33 years (17-54 years) (Table 1). Out of the eleven patients, four had previously undergone Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Immunotherapy (CAR-T) therapy, and one patient had received Blinatumomab. One patient experienced relapse, another patient was refractory, and 3 patients had extramedullary infiltration.

All patients achieved morphological complete remission prior to transplantation, and 10 patients (90.9%) achieved a MRD negative remission. Additionally, all the transplantations successfully completed, with a median time to absolute neutrophil counts (ANC) recovery of 12 days (11-15 days) and platelet (PLT) recovery of 16 days (15-21 days). The median follow-up time was 6.4 months (2.4 -13.6 months), no patient experienced relapse or death, the OS and DFS are both 100%. There were no grade 3 or higher adverse events (AEs), hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD),and the transplant-related mortality (TRM). Four patients who developed acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) post-transplantation, all cases involved grade I/II skin aGVHD, and one of them involved grade III GI aGVHD, and no chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) were observed during the follow-up period. By the endpoint of follow-up, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) activation was 45.4% (5/11) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation was 27.3% (3/11).

The MDS cohort consisted of 7 cases of MDS-EB-I, 1 case of MDS-EB-II. There were 5 males and 3 females, with a median age of 42 years (23-57 years)(Table 2). Two patients received chemotherapy before transplantation, and the other six patients directly received allo-HSCT.

In MDS cohort, the median recovery time for ANC was 12 days (11-13 days) and PLT was 17.5 days (16-20 days). The median follow-up was 14.3 months (1.2-18.3 months), no patient had relapsed or died, both OS and DFS are 100%. There were no grade 3 or higher AEs, and TRM. One patient developed VOD. Three patients developed aGVHD after transplantation, all involving degree I/II skin aGVHD, and there was one case of cGVHD during the follow-up period, where the patient developed a mild pulmonary cGVHD. By the endpoint of the follow-up, the rate of CMV activation was 37.5% (3/8) and EBV activation was 25% (2/8).

Conclusion:The VA combined with the mBuCy proves to be a effective and safe conditioning regimen for high-risk ALL and MDS patients. However, more patients are needed for follow-up and validation.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH