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4178 A CD38/CD28xCD3 Trispecific T-Cell Engager (TCE) As a Potentially Active Agent for the Treatment of Older Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 604. Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Resistance: Myeloid Neoplasms: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Acute Myeloid Malignancies, AML, Translational Research, assays, drug development, Diseases, Therapies, immunology, Myeloid Malignancies, Biological Processes, Technology and Procedures
Monday, December 11, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Aintzane Zabaleta1*, Esperanza Martín-Sánchez1*, Laura Blanco1*, Peter Kim2*, Kamlesh Bisht, PhD2*, Hongfang Wang, PhD2*, Helgi J. Van de Velde, MD, PhD2, Tomas Jelinek, MD, PhD3,4,5, Catia Simoes, PhD1*, Felipe Prosper, MD, PhD6, Jesus San-Miguel, MD, PhD1, David Martinez-Cuadron, PhD7*, Pau Montesinos, PhD, MD8* and Bruno Paiva6*

1CIMA (Pamplona)Cancer Center Clinica Universidad de Navarra (CCUN), Centro de Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA), Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), CIBER-ONC numbers CB16/12/00369 and CB16/12/00489, Pamplona, Spain
2Sanofi R&D, North America, Cambridge, MA
3Department of Haematooncology, University Hospital Ostrava and Faculty of Medicine, Ostrava, Ostrava-Mesto, Czech Republic
4Cancer Center Clinica Universidad de Navarra (CCUN), Centro de Investigacion Medica Aplicada (CIMA), Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), CIBER-ONC numbers CB16/12/00369 and CB16/12/00489, Pamplona, Spain
5Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
6Cancer Center Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada (CIMA), IDISNA, CIBER-ONC number CB16/12/00369 and CB16/12/00489, Pamplona, Spain
7Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain
8Hospital Universitari i Politecnic la Fe, Valencia, Spain

Background: Refractory disease is common and the outcome of elderly AML patients unable to receive intensive chemotherapy with acceptable side effects remains dismal. Thus, the identification of effective and safer drugs in AML is warranted. Immunotherapeutic strategies have shown extraordinary efficacy for the treatment of hematological malignancies, such as anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in multiple myeloma. Indeed, CD38 could represent a potential therapeutic target for AML too, not only because it is expressed in AML blasts, but also because AML patients with heterogeneous or low CD38 expression could benefit from T-cell based immunotherapies that are less dependent of the density of the targeted antigen.

Aims: To evaluate CD38 as a potential therapeutic target in AML, and to determine the mode of action and preclinical efficacy of isatuximab (an IgG1 anti-CD38 mAb) and SAR442257, which is a new CD38/CD28xCD3 trispecific TCE.

Results: We evaluated CD38 expression in bone marrow blasts from 241 newly diagnosed elderly AML patients by flow cytometry. Overall, 99.2% of AML patients expressed CD38, 55.6% with homogeneous pattern and 44.6% with heterogeneous pattern. CD38 expression had no impact in the overall survival of AML patients. Interestingly, CD38 expression increased 2-fold in MRD positive leukemic blasts compared with patient-matched blasts at diagnosis (n=10).

At 24h and up to 96h, isatuximab (70 nM) decreased CD38 surface level in 3 AML cell lines expressing low (KG-1), intermediate (MOLM-13) and high or similar (OCI-AML3) basal CD38 density as compared to AML patients. Isatuximab (70 nM) did not induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity; by contrast, we observed a trend to an increased antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis and significant antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) only in OCI-AML3 cells in the presence of purified NK cells. In 17 primary samples from AML patients with homogeneous vs heterogeneous CD38 expression, isatuximab (70 nM) showed a median of 19% and 4.5% tumor-cell death, respectively. Altogether, these findings indicated an association between CD38 density and the mode of action triggered by isatuximab and its efficacy. As such, AML patients with heterogeneous CD38 expression are less likely to respond to isatuximab, but might benefit from TCE that are less dependent of the density of the targeted antigen.

Contrary to isatuximab, the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE did not induce a dose- and time-dependent decrease in CD38 surface levels in any AML cell line measured with a non-competing anti-CD38 antibody, regardless of the CD38 antigen density. When we cultured PBMCs from healthy adults (n=6) with MOLM-13 cells (E:T ratio of 10:1) in the presence of isatuximab or the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE (700 pM), we observed a significantly higher tumor cell lysis at 48h induced by the latter. The same effect of the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE was observed with purified T-, but not NK-cells from healthy adults (n=3). To identify the immune cells involved in tumor cell lysis, we confirmed that isatuximab only induced NK-cell activation, whereas the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE induced both T- and NK-cell activation, measured as percentage of CD69+ cells. Co-culture of purified NK- or T-cells with MOLM-13 cells in the presence of the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE demonstrated a T-cell dependent bystander activation of NK cells. Furthermore, isatuximab downregulated CD38 in a dose-dependent manner, especially in NK cells, while the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE did not. Surprisingly, the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE induced CD38 upregulation on T cells, indicating again T-cell activation. The efficacy of isatuximab and the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE was analyzed in primary AML samples (n=8) and blast lysis was observed in two and three samples, respectively. Notably, two of the three CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE-responders were resistant to isatuximab. CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE-mediated lysis was independent of CD38 expression and induced no significant off-target toxicity.

Conclusions: CD38 is widely present in blasts from older AML patients but nearly half show heterogeneous expression. While isatuximab-driven ADCC in AML cell lines and primary samples is dependent on CD38 density in tumor cells, the CD38/CD28xCD3 TCE exerted its anti-tumor efficacy regardless of CD38 density. Thus, AML patients expressing both high and low/heterogenous levels of CD38 could benefit from T cell based immunotherapeutic strategies targeting CD38.

Disclosures: Bisht: Sanofi R&D: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Van de Velde: Sanofi: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. San-Miguel: Celgene: Other: Advisory Board; Haemalogix: Other: Advisory Board; GSK: Other: Advisory Board; Regeneron: Other: Advisory Board; Janssen-Cilag: Other: Advisory Board; BMS: Other: Advisory Board; Abbvie: Consultancy, Other: Advisory Board; Karyopharm: Other: Advisory Board; MSD: Other: Advisory Board; Amgen: Consultancy, Other: Advisory Board; Novartis: Other; Takeda: Other: Advisory Board; Roche: Other: Advisory Board; Sanofi: Other: Advisory Board; SecuraBio: Other: Advisory Board. Martinez-Cuadron: Astellas: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Otsuka: Consultancy, Other: Travel, Accommodations; Pfizer: Other: Travel, Accommodations. Montesinos: NERVIANO: Consultancy; INCYTE: Consultancy; Janssen: Speakers Bureau; OTSUKA: Consultancy; BEIGENE: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy; Astellas: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; GILEAD: Consultancy; Ryvu: Consultancy; Kura oncology: Consultancy; Jazz pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Menarini-Stemline: Consultancy, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; BMS: Consultancy, Other, Research Funding; Daiichi Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding. Paiva: Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Roche Glycart AG: Honoraria, Research Funding; GSK: Honoraria, Research Funding; EngMab: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Research Funding; Adaptive: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria; Gilead: Honoraria; Oncopeptides: Honoraria.

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