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2199 Antithymocyte Globulin in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Evaluating Outcomes According to Cytogenetic Risk

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 722. Allogeneic Transplantation: Acute and Chronic GVHD, Immune Reconstitution: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Acute Myeloid Malignancies, AML, Biological therapies, Diseases, Therapies, Adverse Events, Myeloid Malignancies, Transplantation
Saturday, December 9, 2023, 5:30 PM-7:30 PM

Mihee Kim, MD1*, Seo-Yeon Ahn, MD1*, Sung-Hoon Jung1*, Ga-Young Song1*, Deok-Hwan Yang, MD, PhD1*, Je-Jung Lee1*, Mi Yeon Kim2*, Hyeoung Joon Kim, MD, PhD1,2 and Jae-Sook Ahn, MD, PhD1,2*

1Hematology-Oncology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hawsun, Jeollanam-do, Korea, Republic of (South)
2Genomic Research Center for Hematopoietic Diseases, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hawsun, Jeollanam-do, Korea, Republic of (South)

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an essential therapeutic approach for the management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Nevertheless, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a significant complication, significantly affecting the recipients' quality of life and overall survival. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) has demonstrated promise in preventing GVHD during allo-HSCT. However, concerns persist regarding its potential impact on disease relapse. This retrospective single-center study aims to evaluate the prognostic implications of ATG based on cytogenetic risk stratification in AML patients undergoing transplantation from an HLA-matched sibling.

A total of 124 AML patients who underwent allo-HSCT from an HLA-matched sibling in their first complete remission state between 2003 and 2022 were eligible for the study. Among them, fifty patients received rabbit ATG at a dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for days -2 to -1, while 74 patients did not receive ATG. All patients received cyclosporine and methotrexate in addition to their respective conditioning regimens (ATG or no ATG). The ATG group consisted of 38 patients classified as having a non-high cytogenetic risk, and 12 patients classified as having a high cytogenetic risk. Conversely, the non-ATG group included 68 patients with a non-high cytogenetic risk and 6 patients with a high cytogenetic risk.

After a median follow-up of 48 months, there were no significant differences in median overall survival between the ATG and Non-ATG groups, regardless of cytogenetic risk status (non-high cytogenetic risk; 12.4 months vs. NA, p = 0.578; high cytogenetic risk; 13.2 months vs. 14.2 months, p = 0.729, Figure A-1,B-1). The ATG group in the non-high cytogenetic risk group demonstrated a significant decrease in the 1-year cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD compared to the non-ATG group (21.7% vs. 54.4%, p = 0.001, Figure A-2; and in those with moderate to severe cGVHD, it was 21.6% vs. 51.5%, p = 0.003, respectively). Additionally, the 1-year Chronic GVHD-free and relapse-free survival (cGRFS) was higher in the ATG group of the non-high cytogenetic risk group (45.8vs. 26.5%; p = 0.048, Figure A-3). Moreover, there were no significant differences in 1-year CI of relapse and 1-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) within the non-high cytogenetic risk group (ATG vs. non-ATG; 29.7% vs. 20.6%, p = 0.225; 8.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.635, Figure A-4,5). In the subgroup analysis of patients with high cytogenetic risk, although there was no statistical significance, the ATG group showed a trend towards decreased 1-year CI of chronic GVHD and higher cGRFS compared to the non-ATG group (10.4% vs. 40.0%, p = 0.342; 31.2% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.929, Figure B-2,3). However, the ATG group exhibited a significantly higher 1-year CI of relapse compared to the non-ATG group (60.0% vs. 16.7%, p = 0.019, Figure B-4).

In conclusion, our study findings indicate that ATG was effective in preventing chronic GVHD and demonstrated higher cGRFS in AML patients undergoing matched sibling donor HSCT. However, AML patients with high cytogenetic risk should carefully consider the use of ATG due to the associated higher risk of relapse. Further investigations are warranted to validate these findings and determine the appropriate dosage of ATG for high cytogenetic risk AML patients.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH