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2191 The Area Under Tacrolimus Concentrations on Day 14-28 Is the Independent Predictor of the Development of Chronic Gvhd in Patients without Severe Acute Gvhd after Unrelated Allogeneic HSCT

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 722. Allogeneic Transplantation: Acute and Chronic GVHD, Immune Reconstitution: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Clinical Research, real-world evidence, Adverse Events
Saturday, December 9, 2023, 5:30 PM-7:30 PM

Susumu Tanoue1*, Hiroki Yokoyama, MD, PhD2*, Hiroto Ishii, MD, PhD3*, Daiki Hattori, MD2*, Iku Kamitani2*, Takeshi Saito, MD, PhD2 and Shingo Yano, MD, PhD2

1Division of Clinical Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Kashiwa-Shi, CHI, Japan
2Division of Clinical Oncology/Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
3The Jikei University Hospital, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Introduction: In unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (UR-SCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a critical complication that affects not only patients’ quality of life but also post-transplant outcome. Acute GVHD is a major risk factor for the subsequent development of chronic GVHD. The combination of tacrolimus and short-term methotrexate (TAC+sMTX) has been widely used as a GVHD prophylaxis for UR-SCT in Japan. Previous reports have shown that tacrolimus blood concentrations early after transplantation are associated with the development of acute GVHD, but not with that of chronic GVHD. On the other hand, among UR-SCT recipients who did not develop severe acute GVHD, the relationship between tacrolimus blood concentrations and the development of chronic GVHD remains unclear.

Methods: To examine the association between tacrolimus blood concentrations and post-transplant outcomes, the area under the tacrolimus concentration on day 0-14 (AUTC0-14) and day 14-28 (AUTC14-28) was calculated simply as the sum of the area of the trapezoid for the corresponding period (Figure). Tacrolimus was initiated by continuous intravenous administration from day -1 in all patients, and no patients were switched to oral administration prior to day 28. Short-term methotrexate was administered at 10 mg/m2 on day 1 and 7 mg/m2 on day 3, day 6, and day 11. Among all 151 adult patients with hematopoietic malignancies who underwent first UR-SCT with GVHD prophylaxis of TAC+sMTX between 2010 and 2022 at the Jikei University Hospital, the following were excluded from the analysis: developing grade III-to-IV acute GVHD, using prednisolone or methyl-prednisolone ≥0.5 mg/kg within day 100, engraftment failure, death before day 100, and relapse before day 100.

Results: A total of 68 patients were included in the analysis. Median age was 50.5 (range, 16-68) years. Twenty-seven (40%) patients had acute myeloid leukemia, and 18 (27%) had acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Fifty-five (81%) were in complete remission/chronic phase/early stage. The donor source consisted of 42 (62%) bone marrow transplantation (BMT), 20 (29%) cord blood transplantation (CBT), and 6 (9%) peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). BMT recipients transplanted from 22 (52%) HLA 8/8 matched donor, 19 (45%) HLA 7/8 matched donor, and one (3%) HLA 6/8 matched donor. CBT recipients transplanted from 15 (75%) HLA 4/6 matched donor and 5 (25%) HLA 5/6 matched donor. PBSCT recipients transplanted from 5 (83%) HLA 8/8 matched donor and one (17%) HLA 7/8 matched donor. Fifteen (22%) patients were administered additional low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) as GVHD prophylaxis. Fifteen male patients transplanted from female donors (22%). Thirty-nine (57%) patients received myeloablative conditioning regimen. The median time from UR-SCT to neutrophil engraftment was 19 days (range, 11-34). Regarding acute GVHD, 46 patients (68%) developed none, 13 patients (19%) developed grade I, and 9 patients (13%) developed grade II. The median observation period for all 68 patients was 48.2 months (4.0 years). The 4-year cumulative incidence (CI) of chronic GVHD was 51%, of which 24% were moderate-to-severe. The CI of moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD was not associated with age, disease status, donor source, HLA incompatibility, ATG use, female to male, intensity of conditioning regimen, and grade I-to-II acute GVHD development. AUTC14-28 <200 was the only risk factor (AUTC14-28<200: 32% vs AUTC14-28≥200: 11%; p=0.047). Multivariate analysis also showed that AUTC14-28 <200 was the independent factor for development of moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD (p=0.04). In all 68 patients, 4-year CI of relapse was 20%, 4-year CI of non-relapse mortality was 10%, 4-year GVHD-free, relapse-free, survival (GRFS) was 50%, and 4-year Overall survival was 80%, all of which did not differ between AUTC14-28 <200 and AUTC14-28 ≥200 groups.

Conclusion: In UR-SCT, our data showed that AUTC14-28 <200 may be an independent risk factor for developing moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD, even in patients who did not develop severe acute GVHD.

Disclosures: Yano: Astra Zeneca: Honoraria; Otsuka Pharmaceutical: Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH