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675 Platelet CD47 Maintains Circulating Monocyte Immune Homeostasis

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Type: Oral
Session: 201. Granulocytes, Monocytes, and Macrophages: Granulocytes, Monocytes and Disorders of Histocytes
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Fundamental Science, Bleeding and Clotting, Bacterial, Diseases, thrombocytopenias, immune mechanism, Infectious Diseases, immunology, Biological Processes
Monday, December 11, 2023: 11:00 AM

Chen Li, Sara Ture, B.S*, Sara Blick-Nitko*, Preeti Maurya, PhD*, Alison C. Livada, MS, Minsoo Kim*, Anthony Pietropaoli* and Craig Morrell, DVM, PhD

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

In addition to their well-studied hemostatic functions, platelets are immune cells. Platelets circulate at the interface between the vascular wall and white blood cells, and transient platelet-leukocyte complexes are found in both healthy and disease states, positioning platelets to provide physiologic cues of both vascular health and injury. Roles for activated platelets in inducing and amplifying immune responses have received an increasing amount of research attention, but our past studies also showed that normal platelet counts are needed in healthy conditions to maintain immune homeostasis. Circulating monocytes are a part of the first line of host defenses that recognize and clear pathogens in part by releasing inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα, that trigger a robust inflammatory reaction. However, this needs to be tightly regulated and in disease conditions like sepsis, dysregulated monocyte responses contribute to a “cytokine storm” that leads to exaggerated inflammation, tissue damage and potentially mortality. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate monocyte immune phenotypes are complex and include roles for platelets. Considering the immune regulatory role of platelets and that thrombocytopenia is associated with worse sepsis outcomes, we hypothesize that resting platelets maintain monocyte immune homeostasis in healthy conditions and thrombocytopenia independently leads to monocyte dysregulation that exacerbates sepsis responses in a manner that is dependent on direct platelet-monocyte CD47 homotypic interactions that regulate monocyte immunometabolism and gene expression.

Compared to monocytes from mice with normal platelet counts, circulating monocytes from thrombocytopenic mice had increased toll-like receptor (TLR) induced cytokine responses. Furthermore, ex vivo co-incubation of resting platelets with platelet naïve bone marrow monocytes, induced monocyte metabolic programming skewed toward glycolysis, consistent with our in vitro and in vivo RNA-Seq results. Enhanced glycolysis was mediated by AKT/mTOR pathway activation and resulted in durable changes in TLR agonist responses. Assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-Seq) on monocytes from thrombocytopenic mice showed open chromatin at LPS response genes, and resting platelet interactions with monocytes induced histone H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation in a CD47 dependent manner. Using mouse models of thrombocytopenia and sepsis, we found that normal platelet numbers limited monocyte immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation. This was dependent on platelet CD47 as only WT platelets, not CD47-/- platelet transfusion rescued the exaggerated inflammatory responses in thrombocytopenic mice (Fig 1). Both plasma IL-6 and IL-8 and circulating monocyte IL6 and IL8 gene expression from human patients with sepsis and non-septic conditions inversely correlated with patient platelet counts, further suggesting a resting platelet role in maintaining monocyte immune quiescence.

Overall, our studies demonstrate that resting platelets maintain monocyte immune homeostasis by limiting TLR responses through regulating monocyte immunometabolic processes that lead to epigenetic changes in monocyte immune response genes (Fig 2). Thrombocytopenia therefore independently leads to immune dysregulation in sepsis, exacerbating systemic inflammatory processes. This is the first demonstration of sterile endogenous cell interactions that regulate innate immune-metabolism and monocyte pathogen responses.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH