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1806 Improvement of Treatment-Free Remission Rate Following Discontinuation of BCR::ABL1 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Chronic Phase, Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 632. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
CML, Chronic Myeloid Malignancies, Diseases, Myeloid Malignancies
Saturday, December 9, 2023, 5:30 PM-7:30 PM

Sewon Lee, MD1, Hongtae Kim2*, Semin Lee3*, Seunghoon Kim3*, Sung-Ho Park2*, Sung-Hyun Kim, MD4*, Young Rok Do, PhD, MD5, Soo-Hyun Kim6*, Kyung-Mi Kee6* and Dong-Wook Kim, MD, PhD6,7

1Ewha Womans University Medical Center, Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, AL, South Korea
2Department of Biological Science, Ulsan National Institute of Science & Technology, Ulsan, Korea, Republic of (South)
3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Information-Bio Convergence Engineering Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea, Republic of (South)
4Dong-A University Hospital, Busan, Korea, Republic of (South)
5Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of (South)
6Leukemia Omics Research Institute, Eulji University, Uijeongbu, Korea, Republic of (South)
7Uijeongbu Eulji Medical Center, Uijeoungbu-si, Korea, Republic of (South)

Backgrounds: Several studies have shown that approximately one-half of patients with chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) who receive sufficient tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and achieve and maintain a deep molecular response (DMR) are able to successfully discontinue therapy. The main factors affecting Treatment free remission (TFR) are the duration of TKIs treatment and the duration of DMR maintenance during TKI treatment.

Aims: To investigate impact of longer duration of DMR, we analyzed the outcome of patients with CP-CML who maintained DMR for more than 6 years during TKIs treatment and discontinued TKIs. The clinical and molecular immunological application criteria were also investigated for safer and more successful TFR.

Methods: Among patients newly diagnosed with CP-CML and treated at least one of TKIs (Imatinib, Nilotinib, Dasatinib, Bosutinib, and Radotinib) as the first treatment, patients who maintained MR4.5 (BCR::ABL1 IS ≤0.0032%) continuously for at least 6 years through qRT-PCR tests were enrolled in this study. After discontinuation, molecular responses were monitored for up to six months per month, up to 12 months every two months, and every three months thereafter using the qRT-PCR method. In the case of relapse, defined as loss of major molecular response (MMR), the last TKI therapy was reintroduced and molecular responses after resumption were monitored monthly until achievement of MMR using qRT-PCR.

Results: Altogether 116 patients (50 males and 66 females) discontinued TKI. Median age at diagnosis was 43.0 years (range, 40.8-45.3) and the percentages of patients with low, intermediate and high Sokal risk scores ware 58 (50.0%), 35 (30.2%) and 18 (15.5%) patients, respectively with unknown Sokal risk scores in 5 (4.3%) patients. Prior to discontinuation, all patients received TKIs for a median of 120.6 months (range, 113.9-127.3), and the duration of sustained MR4.5 was 75.0 months (range, 70.7-79.3). At the time of discontinuation, 93 patients (80.2%) were receiving their first TKI (70 imatinib, 13 nilotinib, 6 radotinib, and 4 dasatinib) while 13 (11.2 %) and 10 (8.6%) patients were receiving their second and more than three TKIs respectively. All patients who received more than one TKI had changed to adverse events.

After a median follow-up from treatment discontinuation of 42.2 months (range, 35.3-49.1), 28 (24.1%) patients have lost their response at a median of 8.4 months (range, 4.9-11.9) after discontinuation; 18 (64.3%) patients had molecular relapse within 6 months of TKI discontinuation and 7 (25.0%) patients lost MMR after 12 months from discontinuation. TFR rates at 12, 24, and 48 months were 81.9%, 76.0%, and 71.0%, respectively. No progression toward advanced-phase CML occurred, and when 28 patients who lost MMR were retreated with same TKI, 26 patients (92.9%) re-achieved MMR with a median of 5.6 months (range, 4.0-7.2). By univariate analysis, a TKI treatment duration of 10 years or more was the only significant predictor for maintained response (P<0.048).

Conclusion: Our result demonstrates that TFR rate can be improved in patients who received TKI treatment for approximately 10 years and maintained DMR for more than 6 years regardless of the type of TKI. Based on results, we can confirm one of important factors for safer TFR in CP-CML patients.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH