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2734 Metabolomic Profiling Confirms the Key Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathophysiology of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 509. Bone Marrow Failure and Cancer Predisposition Syndromes: Congenital: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Diseases, Biological Processes
Sunday, December 10, 2023, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Ondrej Jahoda1*, Dana Dobesova2*, Katarina Hlusickova Kapralova1*, Simona Kurekova1*, Dagmar Pospisilova3*, Vladimir Divoky1,4, David Friedecky2* and Monika Horvathova, MSc4,5

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
2Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University and University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
3Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University and University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic
4Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
5Department of Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), a rare congenital bone marrow failure syndrome, characterized by severe anemia, erythroblastopenia, and congenital malformations is mostly associated with pathogenic variants in ribosomal protein (RP) genes, which cause their haploinsufficiency. The marked heterogeneity of the disease, related to different severity of hematological and non-hematological symptoms and diverse response to treatment, even in patients harboring the same RP mutation is not fully understood. Similarly, the mechanisms responsible for the predisposition of DBA patients to cancer await elucidation. We previously showed that the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds the anti-oxidant capacity of DBA erythrocytes leading to their higher susceptibility to destruction. Using DBA patients’ samples and CRISPR/Cas9-created Rps19- and Rpl5-haploinsufficient MEL cellular models we also showed, that excessive oxidative stress, DNA damage, and activation of DNA damage response of erythroblasts is associated with an increased production of pro-/inflammatory cytokines and induction of apoptosis and senescence.

In recent years, the use of metabolomic analysis appears as a promising tool that could contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and discovery of novel biochemical markers with their potential use in diagnostics and prognostication. We therefore performed targeted metabolomic analysis of serum and erythrocyte samples from DBA patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=10) using hydrophilic interaction chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) where 129 metabolites were detected. Significant changes in the metabolome of DBA patients were observed, with the key deregulated metabolites involved in the antioxidant defense and energy metabolism; the reduction of amine compounds (creatinine, guanidinoacetate) and hippurate in DBA patients compared to controls was also noted. In two DBA families analyzed, the altered erythrocyte metabolism and markers of oxidative stress distinguished the patients from their asymptomatic family members with the same RP mutation. The incubation of erythrocytes from symptomatic DBA patients with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in vitro led to normalization of ROS levels in erythrocytes.

Similarly, the treatment of Rpl5- and Rps19-haploinsufficienct MEL cells with a pro-inflammatory cytokine inhibitor pomalidomide, resulted in the amelioration of oxidative DNA damage (assessed by the presence of 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoG) and reduction of p53 activation. In addition, targeted metabolomic analysis of cellular extracts showed clear separation of Rps19- and Rpl5-haploinsufficient MEL cells from control cells with significant changes affecting the level of many carbohydrates and acylcarnitines. Elevated levels of glutathione and pentose phosphate cycle intermediates in Rps19- and Rpl5-haploinsufficient MEL cells correspond with their need to cope with increased oxidative stress. Significantly increased levels of deoxynucleotides, mainly in Rpl5-haploinsufficient MEL cells, could be related to DNA damage response (DDR) process to promote repair of ROS-mediated damaged DNA. Nucleotide formation is an energy intensive process and therefore the observed decrease in acylcarnitines could be related to increased beta oxidation and increased formation of reduced coenzymes. This result from model MEL cells is consistent with 8-oxoG foci and activation of ATM (a DDR kinase) observed in erythroblasts of DBA patients expanded in vitro. Importantly, immunoreactivity for 8-oxoG and phospho-ATM S1981 was detected also in non-erythroid bone marrow cells of two DBA patients, who recently developed myelodysplastic neoplasia (MDS).

Collectively, our data support the involvement of oxidative stress and pro-/inflammatory cytokines in the pathophysiology of DBA and suggest that the treatment aiming to reduce oxidative stress and/or suppress inflammation could alleviate the severity of the disease, though additional studies are needed. The potential link between oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokines, and cancer risk in DBA also deserves further research.

Grant support: The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (8F20005), European Union - Next Generation EU, Program EXCELES (LX22NPO5102); Internal grant of Palacky University (IGA_LF_2023_002).

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH