Session: 731. Autologous Transplantation: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT) is a potentially life saving curative modality of treatment procedure for many hematological malignancies, bone marrow failure syndromes and thalassemia. Bangladesh started first bone marrow transplant program with autologous transplant for myeloma in 2014 with the international collaboration between Massachusetts general hospital ( MGH) and Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH). Since then it is growing in both public and private sector hospitals.
This is a multicenter retrospective study describing the demographics, activities and outcome of HSCT in Bangladesh. HSCT related Data were collected from three eminent HSCT centres of Bangladesh ( DMCH, Evercare hospitals and Combined Military Hospital Dhaka) and were analyzed.
As of June 2022, total 163 HSCT have been done in Bangladesh in major three centres as DMCH(52), Evercare hospital (62)and CMH Dhaka(49).
Mean age of all patients is 39.4 years( range 15-69 Y) and sex distribution is M:F 3:1. Total autologous transplants were 125(77%) for myeloma(52), Hodgkins lymphoma(27) ,non-Hodgkins lymphoma(39) and others(7). Total allogeneic transplants were 38(23%) for AML(23), ALL(6), other hematological malignancy(03), Severe aplastic anemia (04) and thalassemia (02). Donor type wise majority were from matched sibling transplant (30/78%) from mostly male donor. Eight (08) haplo transplant were also successfully done.
Each center follows specific infection control protocols, conditioning chemo protocols and growth factor protocols for the best patient care. Conditioning chemo protocols that usually used are high dose melphalan for MM, BEAM( Carmustine, Etoposide, Ara-C and Melphalan) for lymphoma and Bu-Cy( Busulphan-Cyclophosphamide) based for acute leukemia. Some leukemia patients received total body irradiation( TBI), thiotepa and Fludarabine based conditioning chemotherapy. All centres use irradiated blood components as transfusion products to avoid transfusion associated GVHD.
As all centre used almost similar conditioning for particular disease, mean engraftment time in all centres were almost similar. Average time for neutrophil and platelet engraftment was 10-12 and 12-16 days post transplant respectively. Major early complications following transplant were neutropenic fever (>80%) and bacteraemia (25-30%) commonly with coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas sp, E. Coli and Klebsiella sp. Severe sepsis, pneumonia, typhlitis, hemorrhagic cystitis and CMV reactivation were observed in few cases. Acute GVHD ( G I to GII) was observed in almost all allogeneic transplanted patients. Mucositis, vomiting and diarrhoea were mild to moderate in most patients. Almost all patients required at least 1-3 red cell and platelet transfusion during the time waiting for engraftment. Progression free survival for all patients was variable in different centres (62% to 83%) since 2014 . Relapse of primary disease is more observed in autologous than allogeneic. Transplant related mortality( TRM) was 2% for autologous transplants and 5% for allogeneic transplant. Three early deaths were due to sepsis with COVID-19 infection in autologous transplant in pandemic period. Overall cost of transplantation is much lower in Bangladesh than that of developed countries. Approximate cost of autologous stem cell transplant is about $7000 and that for allogeneic transplant is $12000 to $15,000.
Considering total population and burden of hematological malignancy in Bangladesh, the number of transplant is very low and it needs to be grown more rapidly to provide maximum benefit to save the lives as HSCT offers a curative approach to many hematological malignancies. Financial constrain, lack of health insurance and shortage of trained human resource are the main challenges for doing transplant in Bangladesh. National transplant registry and national donor registry both are yet to be developed. Comparing the cost difference with developed countries the overall outcome of stem cell transplantation is not inferior in Bangladesh.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
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