Session: 636. Myelodysplastic Syndromes—Basic and Translational: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Research, Translational Research
METHODS: We have addressed some of these knowledge gaps using the largest known international comparative cohort of germline RUNX1, GATA2, or DDX41 variant carriers, which includes carriers both without a malignancy diagnosis “unaffected-carriers” and those with a malignancy “affected-carriers”. Our cohort included 245 patient samples evenly distributed between unaffected-carrier (n=122) and affected-carrier (n=123) samples. We utilized a uniform bioinformatics approach, to identify somatic variants from next generation sequencing data provided by our network of investigators.
RESULTS: We identified clonal hematopoiesis (CH) in 34% and 38% of RUNX1 and GATA2 unaffected-carriers, respectively (Figure 1A top), with overlap in the ages of observation CH and malignancy in different individuals observed (Figure 1A bottom). In contrast CH was seen in only 4% of DDX41 unaffected-carriers, significantly less frequently than RUNX1 or GATA2 (p=0.002). RUNX1- and GATA2 variant carriers were at an increased risk of early onset CH (0-29 years) present in 19% of RUNX1 carriers and 25% of GATA2 variant carriers compared to 0.2% of the general population (PMID: 25426837; PMID: 25426838). RUNX1 unaffected-carriers had an increased prevalence of CH at all ages compared to population controls, with BCOR being the most frequently mutated gene in RUNX1 carriers, present across the entire age spectrum from as young as 16 years to 76 years (Figure 1B). In RUNX1-driven CH specifically we detected “high-risk” variants in TET2, PHF6 and most frequently in BCOR, all of which were also recurrently mutated in RUNX1-driven malignancies, suggesting CH is a direct precursor to malignancy. Consistent with a multi-step process towards leukaemia, we found both an increase in clone size (variant allele frequency, VAF) and the number of variants present per sample, as the age of carriers increased (Figure 1B).
Tumor profiling similarly highlighted differences in the pathways to myeloid malignancy development for the three syndromes. Leukemogenesis in both RUNX1 and DDX41 carriers was often driven by second-hit variants in RUNX1 and DDX41 respectively. Somatic RUNX1 variants were not seen in germline RUNX1 unaffected-carriers, only in tumors, therefore this likely represents a “late” leukemogenic event. This was not able to be inferred for somatic DDX41 variants in DDX41 related predisposition where mutations before malignancy were rarely seen. In contrast, GATA2 germline driven malignancy was not associated with somatic mutation of GATA2, instead this process favored mutations in ASXL1. Both germline RUNX1 and DDX41 cohorts presented with a sex bias for HM development, but in opposite directions (AML 1:2.5 (RUNX1) and HM 3:1 (DDX41), Male:Female). Disruption of RUNX1 regulation of estrogen signalling, and DDX41 mediated exaggeration of the known sex difference in innate immunity, are postulated as mechanisms worth investigation to explain these observed sex biases (PMID: 25479752; PMID:28223406).
CONCLUSIONS: This study lays the foundation for developing novel-preventative therapies and the implementation of gene-specific clinical monitoring requirements for carriers of germline variants in RUNX1, DDX41 and GATA2. Individuals with RUNX1 variants will require regular monitoring for somatic variants in several genes throughout their lifetime, while DDX41 carriers are likely to benefit from monitoring throughout adulthood for driver DDX41 variants using sensitive technology to detect low-frequency initiating events.
Disclosures: Bödör: Abbvie: Research Funding; Janssen: Speakers Bureau; Roche: Research Funding; Astra-Zeneca: Speakers Bureau; Epizyme: Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Speakers Bureau; Astellas Pharma: Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Speakers Bureau. DiNardo: GlaxoSmithKline: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bluebird Bio: Honoraria; Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria, Research Funding; Astellas: Honoraria; Notable Labs: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Honoraria; Foghorn: Honoraria, Research Funding; Jazz: Honoraria; Astex: Research Funding; GenMab: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Cleave: Research Funding; AbbVie: Consultancy, Research Funding; Servier: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; LOXO: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria; Forma: Research Funding; ImmuneOnc: Honoraria, Research Funding; Gilead: Honoraria; Kura: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Kurokawa: SANWA KAGAKU KENKYUSHO CO., LTD.: Consultancy, Honoraria; Astellas Pharma Inc: Research Funding; Eisai Co., Ltd.: Research Funding; Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.: Honoraria, Research Funding; ONO PHARMACEUTICAL CO., LTD.: Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited: Honoraria, Research Funding; Chugai Pharmaceutical Company: Honoraria, Research Funding; Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd.: Honoraria, Research Funding; Kyowa Kirin Co., Ltd.: Honoraria, Research Funding; Nippon Shinyaku Co., Ltd.: Honoraria, Research Funding; Daiichi Sankyo Company .: Honoraria, Research Funding; AbbVie GK: Research Funding; Teijin Limited: Honoraria, Research Funding; Pfizer Japan Inc.: Honoraria, Research Funding; Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation.: Research Funding; Shionogi & Co., Ltd.: Research Funding; AstraZeneca K.K.: Honoraria; Amgen Inc: Honoraria; SymBio Pharmaceuticals Limited: Honoraria; Sanofi K.K.: Honoraria; Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K.: Honoraria; MOCHIDA PHARMACEUTICAL CO.,LTD.: Honoraria. Natsoulis: Imago BioSciences: Current Employment. Owen: AbbVie: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria; AstraZeneca: Honoraria; Merck: Honoraria; Roche: Honoraria; GIlead: Honoraria; Incyte: Honoraria; BeiGene: Honoraria. Rienhoff: Imago BioSciences: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Wei: Amgen: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel, Accommodations, and Expenses, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Roche: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; AstraZeneca: Honoraria, Research Funding; Shoreline: Honoraria; Gilead: Honoraria; Astellas: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Astex: Research Funding; Syndax: Research Funding; BeiGene: Consultancy; Macrogenics: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding; Pfizer: Honoraria; AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Servier: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel, Accommodations, and Expenses, Patents & Royalties: Filing Date: 21/07/2017. Combination of a BCL-2 inhibitor and a MCL-1 inhibitor, uses and pharmaceutical compositions thereof. A. Wei, D. Moujalled, G. Pomilio, A.L. Maragno, O. Geneste, A. Claperon, H. Maacke, E. Halilovic, D. Porter, E. Morris, Y. Wang,, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Agios: Honoraria; Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research: Patents & Royalties. Forsyth: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other. Blombery: Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy, Honoraria; AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria; Servier: Honoraria. Hiwase: AbbVie: Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Speakers Bureau; BMS: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau.
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