-Author name in bold denotes the presenting author
-Asterisk * with author name denotes a Non-ASH member
Clinically Relevant Abstract denotes an abstract that is clinically relevant.

PhD Trainee denotes that this is a recommended PHD Trainee Session.

Ticketed Session denotes that this is a ticketed session.

633 Evolutionary History of Transformation from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia to Richter Syndrome

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Type: Oral
Session: 641. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemias: Basic and Translational: Pathogenesis and Transformation
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Lymphoid Leukemias, CLL, Lymphomas, genomics, B Cell lymphoma, Diseases, aggressive lymphoma, Lymphoid Malignancies, Biological Processes, Technology and Procedures, omics technologies
Sunday, December 11, 2022: 5:00 PM

Erin Michelle Parry, MD, PhD1,2, Romain Guieze, MD, PhD1,3,4*, Ignaty Leshchiner, PhD5,6*, Connor Johnson, BA5*, Eugen Tausch, MD7*, Sameer A. Parikh, MD8, Camilla K Lemvigh, MSc1,9*, Julien Broséus, MD PhD10,11*, Sébastien Hergalant12*, Connor Messer5*, Filippo Utro, PhD13*, Chaya Levovitz, MD, PhD13*, Kahn Rhrissorrakrai, PhD13*, Liang Li5*, Shuqiang Li, PhD5,14*, Geoffrey G Fell15*, Robert A. Redd, MS15*, Ziao Lin, BS5*, Binyamin A. Knisbacher, PhD5*, Christof Schneider, MD16*, Stacey M. Fernandes, BS17*, Julian M. Hess5*, Laura Z. Rassenti, PhD18, Thomas J. Kipps, MD, PhD18, Nitin Jain, MD19, William G. Wierda, MD, PhD20, Florence Cymbalista, MD PhD21*, Pierre Feugier, MD, PhD22*, Neil E. Kay, MD23, Kenneth J Livak, PhD1,14*, Brian P Danysh, PhD5*, Chip Stewart, PhD24*, Donna S. Neuberg, ScD15, Matthew S. Davids, MD1,2, Jennifer R. Brown, MD, PhD1,2, Laxmi Parida, PhD13*, Stephan Stilgenbauer, MD16, Gad Getz, PhD5,25* and Catherine J. Wu, MD1,2,5

1Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
3EA 7453 (CHELTER), Université Clermont Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France
4Department of Hematology, CHU Clermont Ferrand, Clermont Ferrand, MA, France
5Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA
6Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA
7Department of Internal Medicine III, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany
8Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
9Department of Health Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark
10Inserm UMRS1256 Nutrition-Genetique et Exposition aux Risques Environnementaux, University de Lorraine, Nancy, France
11CHRU-Nancy, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France
12Inserm UMRS1256 Nutrition-Genetique et Exposition aux Risques Environnementaux, University de Lorraine, Nancy, AL, FRA
13IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY
14Translational Immunogenomics Lab, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
15Department of Data Science, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
16Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany
17Department of Medical Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
18Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA
19Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
20The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
21Laboratory of Hematology, APHP, Hôpital Avicenne, Bobigny, France
22CHRU-Nancy, service d'hématologie biologique, pôle laboratoires, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France
23Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
24Cancer Program, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA
25Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA

Richter syndrome (RS), an aggressive lymphoma that develops in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), is a striking example of histologic transformation. While recent advances have transformed the treatment landscape of CLL, RS remains associated with dismal overall survival and understanding of the genetic factors driving evolution of CLL to RS is limited.

To decipher the genetics underlying this transformation, we performed an integrative analysis of whole exome (WES) and genome sequencing (WGS) data generated from matched RS and CLL samples from a discovery cohort of 52 patients with RS of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) histology followed by WES analysis of a validation cohort of 45 independent RS cases. Through computational deconvolution of CLL and RS clones, we constructed phylogenetic relationships and traced evolution of CLL to RS, confirming both clonal related (87%) and unrelated RS (13%). In addition to identifying recognized RS-risk genetic lesions, we discovered novel putative somatic driver genes (including IRF2BP2, SRSF1, B2M, DNMT3A, CCND3), copy number alterations (sCNAs) beyond CDKN2A/B loss and MYC gain (including del(15q15)[MGA], del(7q36.2)[EZH2, KMT2C, POT1], gain(1q23.1)[MCL1, NOTCH2] and arm level loss of 1p, 6q, 9p and 9q), whole genome duplication (WGD), and chromothripsis. Additional validation was obtained through re-analysis of 14 RS whole genomes (Klintman et al., Blood, 2021). Overall, our analysis highlighted alterations of NOTCH, DNA damage response and MAPK pathways as frequently preexisting in CLL. Alterations in pathways of MYC signaling, epigenetics, interferon/inflammatory signaling, cell cycle deregulation and immune evasion were newly occurring at transformation.

To assess the degree of similarity between RS and DLBCL, non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) clustering was performed on the 97 RS WES samples and 304 previously characterized DLBCL samples (Chapuy et al., Nature Medicine, 2018) based on identified RS and known DLBCL drivers. The majority of RS (75 of 97) clustered separately from DLBCL, while 7 of 8 clonally unrelated RS cases clustered with DLBCL (P=6.75x10-6), with membership across the DLBCL molecular clusters. To further examine RS, NMF clustering was performed across the 97 RS samples, and 5 robust genomic subtypes were identified: RS-1: WGD; RS-2: Trisomy 12 with NOTCH1/SPEN mutations; RS-3: Mut-TP53 and Mut-NOTCH1; RS-4: Mut-EGR2 and Mut-SF3B1; and RS-5: TP53-altered RS without Mut-NOTCH1. Supervised and unsupervised transcriptome analysis of 36 of the 97 RS samples supported the identified genomic subtypes. The less-genome altered RS subtypes (RS-2, RS-4) had improved overall survival (3.3, 11.3, 5.0, 16.7 and 4.0 months for clonally related RS in subtypes 1-5, respectively; P = 0.0082).

To investigate the stepwise evolution of CLL to RS at high resolution, single-cell RNA-sequencing was performed on diagnostic biopsy samples from 5 RS patients. We developed a novel tool, CNVSingle, to infer allele specific single-cell sCNAs that enabled identification of the single-cell clusters representing distinct CLL and RS genetic subclones as well as intermediate or transitional evolutionary states. Genetic changes often immediately preceded the transcriptional shifts towards RS and increasing chromothripsis was again observed as a hallmark of RS. RS cells displayed gene expression enriched in pathways of MYC activation and cell cycle, in line with similar analyses on paired RS and CLL bulk transcriptomes.

Given the numerous RS-associated genomic features identified by our study, we assessed the feasibility of non-invasive detection of RS events in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) extracted from RS patient plasma by ultra-low pass-WGS sequencing of 46 plasma samples from 24 RS patients. Indeed, RS-specific sCNAs, chromothripsis, RS-specific driver mutations and whole genome doubling were detected in plasma cfDNA, distinct from circulating CLL. This included detection of RS in cfDNA of 6 of 8 patients (75%) at RS diagnosis and 2 of 7 (29%) patients within 10 months preceding RS diagnosis.

In conclusion, we report molecular characterization of the largest RS cohort to date (111 patients), demonstrate that RS is genetically distinct from DLBCL and provide novel genetic and prognostic insights into this aggressive malignancy, with potential for clinical translation towards a more precise RS diagnosis.

Disclosures: Guieze: Roche: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Astrazeneca: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Beigene: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Abbvie, Beigene, Janssen, Gilead, Roche, AstraZeneca: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Leshchiner: Nord Bio, Inc.: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Nord Bio, Inc.: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; PACT Pharma Inc: Consultancy; ennov1 LLC: Consultancy, Current equity holder in private company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Tausch: Abbvie: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Roche: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Parikh: AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; AbbVie: Consultancy, Research Funding; Ascentage Pharma: Research Funding; Genetech: Consultancy; GlaxoSmithKline: Consultancy; Phamacyclics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Merck: Consultancy, Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Adaptive Biotehcnologies: Consultancy. Broséus: Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding; Astra Zeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria; Gilead: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding. Utro: IBM: Current Employment. Levovitz: IBM: Current Employment. Rhrissorrakrai: IBM: Current Employment. Schneider: AbbVie, AstraZeneca: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Kipps: Celgene: Consultancy; Pharmacyclics, LLC an AbbVie Company: Consultancy, Research Funding; Oncternal: Research Funding; Gilead: Consultancy; AbbVie: Consultancy, Research Funding; Genentech-Roch: Consultancy, Research Funding. Jain: TG Therapeutics: Honoraria; Genentech, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; Servier Pharmaceuticals LLC: Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; Cellectis: Honoraria, Research Funding; Fate Therapeutics: Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Medisix: Research Funding; Beigene: Honoraria; CareDx: Honoraria; Takeda: Research Funding; Precision Biosciences: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; Dialectic Therapeutics: Research Funding; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support; Pfizer: Research Funding; Cellectis: Honoraria, Research Funding; ADC Therapeutics: Research Funding; Newave: Research Funding; Incyte Corporation: Research Funding; Loxo Oncology: Research Funding; MEI Pharma: Honoraria; Novalgen: Research Funding; Aprea Therapeutics: Research Funding; Mingsight: Research Funding; AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel Support, Research Funding; Ipsen: Honoraria; TransThera Sciences: Research Funding. Wierda: Oncternal Therapeutics, Inc.: Research Funding; Kite, a Gilead Company: Research Funding; Sunesis: Research Funding; Bristol Meyers Squibb (Juno and Celgene): Research Funding; Karyopharm: Research Funding; Miragen: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics LLC: Research Funding; Genzyme: Consultancy; Sanofi: Consultancy; GSK/Novartis: Research Funding; Gilead Sciences: Research Funding; Janssen: Research Funding; Loxo Oncology, Inc./Lilly: Research Funding; Juno: Research Funding; Xencor: Research Funding; Genentech: Research Funding; Cyclacel: Research Funding; AstraZeneca/Acerta Pharma. Inc.: Research Funding; AbbVie: Research Funding. Feugier: AstraZeneca, Janssen, Abbvie, Beigene, Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Congress Invitations. Kay: Oncotracker: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Juno Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Dava Oncology: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee; Cytomx Therapy: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee; Behring: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Beigene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; AstraZeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee; Morpho-sys: Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee; Dren Bio: Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee; BMS: Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee, Research Funding; Targeted Oncology: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pharmacyclics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; AbbVie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Rigel: Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee; Celgene: Other: Data Safety Monitoring Committee, Research Funding; Genentech: Research Funding; MEI Pharma: Research Funding; Sunesis: Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Tolero Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding. Livak: Standard BioTools Inc.: Current equity holder in private company. Neuberg: Madrigal Pharmaceuticals: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Davids: Genentech: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; AbbVie: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Bristol-Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Eli Lilly and Company: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Research to Practice: Honoraria; Ono Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Merck: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy; TG Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Ascentage Pharma: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; BeiGene: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Verastem: Consultancy, Research Funding. Brown: Abbvie: Consultancy; Sun: Research Funding; TG Therapeutics: Research Funding; Grifols: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy; Hutchmed: Consultancy; Acerta/ Astra-Zeneca: Consultancy; Genentech/Roche: Consultancy; Beigene: Consultancy, Research Funding; Bristol-Myers-Squibb/Juno/Celgene: Consultancy; iOnctura: Consultancy; MEI Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding; Catapult: Consultancy; Eli Lilly: Consultancy, Research Funding; SecuraBio: Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy; Gilead: Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy. Parida: IBM: Current Employment. Stilgenbauer: Gilead: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Incyte: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Infinity: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Verastem: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Sunesis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Genentech: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; BeiGene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; AstraZenica: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Acerta: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Hoffmann-La Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Getz: SignatureAnalyzer-GPU: Patents & Royalties; MSMuTect: Patents & Royalties; MSMutSig: Patents & Royalties; MSIDetect: Patents & Royalties; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; IBM: Research Funding; Scorpion Therapeutics: Consultancy, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Other: Founder; POLYSOLVER: Patents & Royalties. Wu: Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; BioNTech: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company.

*signifies non-member of ASH