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399 Pathogenic Germline Variants in Multiple Myeloma

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Type: Oral
Session: 652. Multiple Myeloma and Plasma cell Dyscrasias: Clinical and Epidemiological: A Map for the Changing Landscape of Multiple Myeloma
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Genomics, Adults, Translational Research, Clinical Research, Plasma Cell Disorders, Clinically Relevant, Diseases, Lymphoid Malignancies, Biological Processes, Genomic Profiling, Technology and Procedures, Study Population
Sunday, December 12, 2021: 10:00 AM

Santiago Thibaud, MD1, Aaron Etra, MD2*, Ryan Subaran, PhD3*, Zachry Soens, MS3*, Scott Newman, PhD3*, Rong Chen, PhD3*, Ajai Chari, MD4, Hearn Jay Cho, MD, PhD5,6, Sundar Jagannath4, Deepu Madduri, MD4, David T. Melnekoff, MS7*, Shambavi Richard6*, Joshua Richter, MD6, Larysa Sanchez, MD4, Kuan-lin Huang, PhD8*, Alessandro Lagana, PhD7*, Samir Parekh, MD6 and Kenan Onel, MD, PhD8

1Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
2Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, NY
3Sema4, Stamford, CT
4Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
5Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF), Norwalk, CT
6Department of Medicine, Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
7Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY
8Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence supporting inherited predisposition to multiple myeloma (MM). Epidemiologic studies have shown that 1st-degree relatives of MM patients (pts) have a 2-4 fold increase in risk of developing MGUS or MM. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common SNPs as well as rare high-penetrance variants that collectively explain ~16% of the estimated heritability of multiple myeloma (PMID 30213928). Pathogenic/likely-pathogenic germline variants (PGV) in hereditary cancer genes (HCG) are common in adult cancer patients (~8%, PMID 29625052), but prevalence in MM is not known. The aim of our study is to investigate the occurrence of PGV in newly-diagnosed MM (NDMM), and to describe clinical characteristics & outcomes of carriers.

METHODS: We analyzed MMRF CoMMpass data (version IA16) and identified 895 NDMM pts for whom whole-exome sequencing of germline DNA was available. We used the clinical annotation pipeline from Sema4, a CLIA/CAP certified genetic testing laboratory, to identify pts with PGV according to ACMG variant classification guidelines. We compared clinical characteristics & disease phenotypes of PGV carriers vs non-carriers. We used Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact tests to assess statistical significance, which we defined as a two-sided p value < 0.05. Logistic regression models were used for multivariate analyses. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional-hazards models were used for uni- and multivariate survival analysis, respectively. Bonferroni method was used to account for multiple testing.

RESULTS: We identified 83 PGV in 31 distinct HCG in 79 (8.8%) of 895 NDMM pts (83% European ancestry) [Figure 1A]. Most PGV involved DNA damage repair (DDR) genes (78%), and homologous recombination (HR) genes were the most commonly mutated (34%). PGV in CHEK2 were the most common (n=10, 1.1% of all MM pts). 2 pts carried PGV in TP53 and reported extensive family history of Li-Fraumeni-associated cancers (breast, sarcoma, gastric & melanoma). 6 pts had germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects (1:149, considerably higher than the estimated prevalence of Lynch syndrome in Western populations). 4 pts carried PGV in BRCA2 (previously identified in a family study as a potential MM predisposition gene, PMID 11904319). MM pts with a family history of hematologic malignancy (leukemia, lymphoma or MM) in a 1st or 2nd-degree relative were significantly more likely to carry PGV (22 vs 7.6%, OR=3.3, p<0.001), an association that remained significant in MVA (OR=4.1, p<0.001). CHEK2 variants emerged as leading drivers of this correlation (OR 18.2, 95% CI 4.1-75, adjusted p<0.01), & especially protein-truncating founder variant c.1100delC. Likelihood of being diagnosed w/ MM before age 40 was significantly higher in PGV carriers (6.3 vs 1.8%, OR=3.7, p=0.025). 25% of those younger than 40 y/o carried PGV, but none of these were in DDR-HR genes, a notable difference with other age groups (0 vs 41%, p=0.02). 2/6 MMR PGV were detected in pts diagnosed before age 40. In univariate survival analysis, DDR-PGV carriers had a significant PFS1 advantage over non-carriers (median 52 vs 35 months, p=0.008), as well as a non-significant OS advantage (p=0.08). PFS1 difference remained significant in MVA after adjusting for age, ISS stage, high-risk cytogenetics, treatment type & transplant status (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.97, p=0.03) [Figure 1B].

CONCLUSIONS: PGV in HCG were common (8.8%) in this large cohort of NDMM pts of predominantly European ancestry, especially in those with a family history of hematologic malignancy (1:4, with high prevalence of CHEK2 variants & particularly protein-truncating founder variant c.1100delC), and in those diagnosed before age 40 (1:4). Routine screening in high-prevalence subgroups might be warranted, as carriers may benefit from counseling and enrollment in early cancer detection programs. We observed a clinically and statistically significant PFS1 advantage in carriers of PGV in DDR genes, possibly due to increased sensitivity to MM therapies, a well-described phenomenon in other cancer types (PMID 33158305). Prospective validation of these findings is needed to better understand prognostic & therapeutic implications of PGV in MM.

Disclosures: Chari: Karyopharm: Consultancy; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company: Consultancy, Research Funding; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pharmacyclics: Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding; Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding; Janssen Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding; Sanofi Genzyme: Consultancy; Oncopeptides: Consultancy; Antegene: Consultancy; Glaxosmithkline: Consultancy; Secura Bio: Consultancy. Richard: Karyopharm, Janssen: Honoraria. Richter: Sanofi: Consultancy; Antengene: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy; BMS: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Speakers Bureau; X4 Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy; Oncopeptides: Consultancy; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy; Secura Bio: Consultancy; Astra Zeneca: Consultancy. Parekh: Foundation Medicine Inc: Consultancy; Amgen: Research Funding; PFIZER: Research Funding; CELGENE: Research Funding; Karyopharm Inv: Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH