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213 Does Body Mass Index (BMI) during Maintenance Influence Relapse Risk in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)? Results from COG-AALL03N1Clinically Relevant Abstract

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Type: Oral
Session: 612. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemias: Clinical and Epidemiological: Clinical, genetic and societal risk factors impacting ALL outcomes
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
ALL, Lymphoid Leukemias, Clinical Research, Health Outcomes Research, Pediatric, Diseases, Lymphoid Malignancies, Study Population
Saturday, December 11, 2021: 2:30 PM

Aman Wadhwa, MD1, Yanjun Chen, MS1*, Lindsey Hageman, MPH1*, Anna Hoppmann, MD, MPH1*, Anne L Angiolillo, MD2*, David Dickens, MD3*, Glen Lew, MD4, Joseph P. Neglia, MD, MPH5*, Yaddanapudi Ravindranath, MBBS6, Arthur K. Ritchey, MD7, Amanda Muench Termuhlen, MD8*, Lennie Wong, PhD9*, Wendy Landier, PhD, CRNP1* and Smita Bhatia, MD, MPH1

1Institute for Cancer Outcomes and Survivorship, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL
2Children’s National Health System/George Washington University SMHS, Washington, DC
3Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA
4Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA
5University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN
6Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI
7Children's Hosp. of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA
8University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
9Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope, Duarte, CA

Introduction: Higher BMI at ALL diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of post-induction residual leukemia (Orgel, Blood 2014) and relapse (Butturini, JCO 2007). However, children may experience significant changes in BMI during the pre-maintenance phases of ALL treatment (Withycombe, Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009), necessitating an examination of the association between BMI during maintenance and relapse risk. We hypothesized that higher BMI during maintenance would be associated with a greater risk of relapse. We also explored the association between BMI and red cell thioguanine (TGN) levels to understand whether BMI-associated variations in TGN biodistribution explained the BMI-relapse association.

Methods: We used data from COG-AALL03N1 (primary aim was 6MP adherence) to examine the association between BMI during maintenance and relapse risk. Eligibility for enrollment on AALL03N1 included age ≤21y at ALL diagnosis and receiving maintenance therapy in first remission. The current analysis was limited to patients with wild-type thiopurine methyltransferase genotype. BMI (exposure variable) was calculated as sex- and age-based percentile per CDC normative data, and operationalized as normal/underweight [<85%ile], overweight/obese [85-98%ile] and morbidly obese [≥99%ile]). Hazard of relapse (any site) was estimated using multivariable proportional subdistributional hazards regression after adjusting for age at study enrollment, sex, race/ethnicity, NCI risk group, cytogenetics, 6MP dose intensity (6MPDI), and time from initiation of maintenance. We compared fitted means of red cell TGN levels by BMI groups after adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, race/ethnicity, 6MPDI and time from initiation of maintenance using generalized estimated equations. The association between BMI and relapse risk, as well as between BMI and TGN levels, was also examined in a sub-cohort of patients with available 6MP adherence.

Results: The sociodemographic and disease characteristics of the 676 study participants are summarized in the Table. Median BMI%ile was 88.5 (range, 0-100); normal/underweight: 43%, overweight/obese: 45%, and morbidly obese: 12%. As shown in the Figure, cumulative incidence of relapse at 2y from start of maintenance therapy was significantly greater among patients with morbid obesity (11.9±4.3%) when compared to those who were overweight/obese (5.4±1.6%) and underweight/normal weight (4.1±1.4%). After adjusting for the variables listed above, we found that patients with morbid obesity had a 3.2-fold greater hazard of relapse (95%CI=1.4-7.5, P=0.008) when compared to patients who were normal/underweight. After adjusting for age at enrollment, sex, race/ethnicity, 6MPDI, and time from initiation of maintenance, patients with morbid obesity had lower mean red cell TGN levels compared to normal/underweight patients (mean difference: -27.2±7.4 pmol/8 x 108 erythrocytes, P=0.0002). However, inclusion of TGN in the model did not alter the association between BMI and hazard of relapse (HR=3.8, 95%CI, 1.6-9.0, P=0.003). These findings did not change after adjusting for 6MP adherence in the sub-cohort with available adherence data (n=435).

Conclusion: Morbid obesity during maintenance for childhood ALL is associated with relapse as well as lower systemic exposure to 6MP. However, lower TGN levels do not explain the relation between BMI and relapse risk. Therefore, there is a need to understand the mechanism of the relation between morbid obesity during maintenance and relapse risk in children with ALL.

Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

*signifies non-member of ASH