Session: 704. Cellular Immunotherapies: Clinical: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Biological therapies, Adults, Workforce, Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T Cell Therapies, Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility (DEI/DEIA) , Pediatric, Real World Evidence, Therapies, Immunotherapy, Study Population
Chimeric antigen receptor-engineered (CAR) T-cell therapy remains associated with significant toxicities including cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and immune effector cell–associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS). Recently, the recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra has emerged as a promising approach after failure of tocilizumab and corticosteroids to treat CRS/ICANS (Norelli, Nat Med 2018; Giavridis, Nat Med 2018). Here, we describe the safety and efficacy of two anakinra dose regimens to treat refractory CRS and/or ICANS after CAR T-cell therapy.
We retrospectively analyzed data from 26 patients with B-cell or plasma cell malignancies treated at 9 institutions with anakinra for CRS and/or ICANS after CAR T-cell therapy. Details regarding CAR T-cell product and disease type are shown in the Table. CRS/ICANS grade was determined by applying the ASTCT criteria at the time of peak symptom severity. We defined response to anakinra as an improvement in CRS and/or ICANS symptoms per the attending physician’s evaluation.
Patients, disease, and CAR T-cell product are shown in the Table. Anakinra was administered at 100-200mg/day subcutaneously (SC) in 13 patients (pts) (50%; low-dose), or at 8mg/kg/day SC or intravenously (IV) in 13 pts (50%; high-dose). Most pts were treated with anakinra for steroid-refractory ICANS (n=23); two pts were treated for tocilizumab-refractory CRS (n=2) and one for both (n=1). All but one patient received anakinra concurrently with corticosteroids.
Median peak CRS and ICANS grade by ASTCT criteria was 2 (range, 1-4), and 4 (range, 0-5), respectively. Median CRS and ICANS duration was 5 days (range, 1-10) and 15.5 days (range, 1-38), respectively. Median time from CAR T-cell infusion to anakinra initiation was 9 days (range, 5-31). The median duration of anakinra treatment was 8.5 days (range, 1-47). The median time to anakinra initiation from CRS or ICANS onset was comparable in pts receiving high-dose compared to low-dose anakinra (4 versus 4 days, respectively; p=0.8). Comparable peak CRS (median grade, 2 versus 2, p=0.9) and ICANS (median grade, 4 versus 4, p=0.2) were measured in both groups. Other toxicity-directed therapies were administered in 8 pts receiving low-dose anakinra (siltuximab, n=8; intrathecal chemotherapy, n=2, etoposide n=1).
The only infectious event reported after anakinra initiation was HHV6 encephalitis (n=1). Two pts with infections confirmed prior to anakinra initiation died after anakinra treatment: CMV pneumonia (n=1), Escherichia coli bacteremia (n=1). In one patient the anakinra administration route was changed from SC to IV due to a subcutaneous hematoma; in one patient anakinra was discontinued due to elevated liver enzymes. We observed anti-tumor responses (partial or complete) to CAR T-cell therapy in 15 pts (58%; B-ALL, n=1/1; DLBCL, n=9/15; MCL, n=3/4; MM; n=1/1; PMBCL, n=1/3), including complete responses in 11 pts (42%). In high-dose anakinra pts, the ORR was 77% (complete response, 53%).
CRS/ICANS improvement was observed after anakinra initiation in 73% of pts with a median duration of treatment of 3 days (range 1-7). Higher response rates were seen in pts who received high-dose compared to low-dose anakinra (100% versus 46%, respectively; p=0.005) and the non-relapse mortality rate at day 30 was significantly lower in pts treated with high-dose anakinra compared to low-dose anakinra (0% versus 69%; p=0.001%).
In addition, a shorter time to anakinra initiation from CRS or ICANS onset was associated with CRS/ICANS improvement (median, 2 versus 5 days in responders versus non-responders, respectively; p=0.04).
After failure of tocilizumab and/or corticosteroids, early administration of high-dose anakinra (8mg/kg/day IV or SC) was associated with rapid resolution of CRS/ICANS symptoms after use of tocilizumab and/or corticosteroids, with a manageable toxicity profile, and with a non-relapse mortality rate at day 30 of 0%. In contrast, 38% of patients treated with low-dose anakinra died from infections. We observed complete responses to CAR T-cell therapy in pts treated with high-dose anakinra, suggesting limited impact on in vivo CAR-T cell function. In summary, high-dose anakinra is a feasible and promising approach after failure of conventional CRS and ICANS-directed therapies. Prospective trials of anakinra to prevent or treat CRS and ICANS are ongoing.
Disclosures: Barba: Cqrlos III heqlth Institute, aSOCIACION espanola contra el cancer, PERIS: Research Funding; Amgen, Celgene, Gilead, Incyte, Jazz Pharmaceuticals, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer and Roche, Jazz Phar,aceuticals: Honoraria. Iacoboni: BMS/Celgene, Gilead, Novartis, Janssen, Roche: Honoraria. Kwon: Novartis, Celgene, Gilead, Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria. Bailen: Gilead, Pfizer: Speakers Bureau. Reguera: Janssen, Kite/Gilead, Novartis: Speakers Bureau; BMS-Celgene, Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Corral: Gilead: Consultancy; Novartis: Consultancy; Gileqd: Honoraria. Ortiz-Maldonado: Kite, Novartis, BMS, Janssen: Honoraria. Maziarz: Allovir: Consultancy, Research Funding; Novartis: Consultancy, Other: Data and Safety Monitoring board, Research Funding; Vor Pharma: Other: Data and Safety Monitoring Board; Bristol-Myers, Squibb/Celgene,, Intellia, Kite: Honoraria; Artiva Therapeutics: Consultancy; CRISPR Therapeutics: Consultancy; Intellia: Honoraria; Omeros: Research Funding; Athersys: Other: Data and Safety Monitoring Board, Patents & Royalties; Incyte Corporation: Consultancy, Honoraria. Shadman: Mustang Bio, Celgene, Bristol Myers Squibb, Pharmacyclics, Gilead, Genentech, Abbvie, TG Therapeutics, Beigene, AstraZeneca, Sunesis, Atara Biotherapeutics, GenMab: Research Funding; Abbvie, Genentech, AstraZeneca, Sound Biologics, Pharmacyclics, Beigene, Bristol Myers Squibb, Morphosys, TG Therapeutics, Innate Pharma, Kite Pharma, Adaptive Biotechnologies, Epizyme, Eli Lilly, Adaptimmune , Mustang Bio and Atara Biotherapeutics: Consultancy. Green: Seagen Inc.: Research Funding; bristol myers squibb: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Patents & Royalties, Research Funding; Cellectar Biosciences: Research Funding; GSK: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen Biotech: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Juno Therapeutics: Patents & Royalties, Research Funding; Legend Biotech: Consultancy; Neoleukin Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Seattle Genetics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; SpringWorks Therapeutics: Research Funding. Chow: ADC Therapeutics: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Research Funding. Hirayama: Novartis: Honoraria; Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria. Maloney: Kite, a Gilead Company, Juno, and Celgene: Research Funding; A2 Biotherapeutics: Consultancy; BioLineRx, Juno, Celgene, Kite, a Gilead Company, Gilead, Novartis, and Pharmacyclics: Honoraria; A2 Biotherapeutics: Divested equity in a private or publicly-traded company in the past 24 months; Juno: Patents & Royalties. Turtle: AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding; Nektar Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; Precision Biosciences: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Other: Scientific Advisory Board; Caribou Biosciences: Consultancy, Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Other: Scientific Advisory Board; Eureka Therapeutics: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Other: Scientific Advisory Board; Arsenal Bio: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Other: Scientific Advisory Board; Century Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: Scientific Advisory Board; T-CURX: Other: Scientific Advisory Board; Myeloid Therapeutics: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Other: Scientific Advisory Board; Asher Bio: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy; PACT Pharma: Consultancy; TCR2 Therapeutics: Research Funding; Juno Therapeutics/BMS: Patents & Royalties: Right to receive royalties from Fred Hutch for patents licensed to Juno Therapeutics, Research Funding; Allogene: Consultancy. Gauthier: JMP: Consultancy; Larvol: Consultancy; Multerra Bio: Consultancy; Eusapharma: Consultancy; Legend Biotech: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Juno Therapeutics, A BMS Company: Research Funding; Celgene, a BMS Company: Research Funding.
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