Session: 613. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical and Epidemiological: COVID and beyond
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, and Accessibility (DEI/DEIA) , Clinical Practice (e.g. Guidelines, Health Outcomes and Services, and Survivorship, Value; etc.)
In general, patients with hematological diseases are predisposed to develop infections. Severe COVID-19 infection associated with high mortality is more likely in these patient cohorts compared to the general population. Due to immune defects related to the primary disease and/or to immunosuppressive treatment regimes, vaccination efficacy may be reduced in patients with hematological diseases. So far, data on this area are limited.
To evaluate vaccination-related antibody response to BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ChADOx1 in patients with hematological disorders.
Patients and methods:
In this interim analysis of a prospective, observational single-center study, we report antibody levels at least 2 weeks after COVID-19 vaccination. A FDA/CE approved electrochemiluminescent assay (ECLIA) (Elecsys®, Roche, Mannheim, Germany) was used to quantify antibodies, pan Ig (including IgG) against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The assay has a measurement range of 0.4 to 250 U/mL, with a concentration ≥0.8 U/ml considered as positive. Data were analyzed for patients without detection of anti-N (nucleocapsid) SARS-CoV-2 antibody (i.e., without having passed SARS-CoV-2 infection). All tests were performed according to the manufacturer's instructions in an accredited laboratory at the University Hospital Mannheim.
Between February 2021 and July 2021, a total of 175 patients with hematological diseases were included in this study. The median age was 66 years (range 21-90 years), and 81 (46.3%) were female. The antibody levels were measured at least 14 days (median, 58 days) after the 2nd vaccination. The patients were vaccinated with BNT162b2 (BioNTech, n=134), mRNA-1273 (Moderna, n=19), ChADOx1 (AstraZeneca, n=12), or got the first vaccination with BNT162b2 and the second with ChADOx1 (n=10). Overall, 145/175 (82.9%) were diagnosed with a malignant hematological disease (myeloid neoplasms, n=108; lymphoid neoplasms, n=37) and 30/175 with a non-malignant hematological disease (autoimmune disease, n=24; benign, n=6). 124 patients (70.1%) were on active therapy, and 51 patients (29.1%) were previously treated or treatment naïve. Correlation to specific therapies is ongoing and will be presented.
In general, vaccination-related antibody response was positive (≥0.8 U/mL) in 148/175 (84.6%) patients with a median level of 208.6 U/mL (range 0.8-250.00) and negative (<0.8 U/mL) in 27/175 (15.4%) patients. The distribution of the negative cohort regarding the disease subgroups were as followed: myeloid neoplasms 7/27 (25.9%), lymphoid neoplasms 16/27 (59.3%), non-malignant hematological disease 4/27 (14.8%). Within the negative cohort, 21/27 (77.8%) were treated on active therapy, 6/27 (22.2%) were previously treated or treatment naïve.
In myeloid neoplasms, patients with classical myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) had the highest negative result for antibodies with 4/7 (57.1%) followed by myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 2/7 (28.6%). Interestingly, all patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) had a measurable immune response.
In lymphoid neoplasms, patients with low-grade non-hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (predominately chronic lymphocytic leukemia, CLL) had the highest negative antibody result 13/16 (81.3%) followed by high-grade NHL 4/8 (50%; predominately diffuse large b-cell lymphoma, DLBCL).
In non-malignant hematological diseases, only patients with autoimmune diseases had a negative result.
A remarkable group of patients with hematological disease were measured with no or low immune response after 2nd COVID-vaccination, especially those with low-grade NHL, MDS and autoimmune disease. It seems that the percentage of patients with MPN and low response is less critical. No problems appeared in CML patients.
Further explorations are needed with focus on potential risk of COVID infections despite full vaccination: The potential of 3rd booster vaccination should be explored within clinical trials.
Disclosures: Reiter: AOP Orphan Pharmaceuticals: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel support; Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses, Research Funding; Celgene/BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel support; Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses; Blueprint Medicines: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses; Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Deciphera: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel expenses. Kreil: Novartis: Research Funding. Hofmann: Amgen: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria. Jawhar: Takeda: Honoraria, Other: Travel support; Blueprint Medicines: Honoraria; Stemline: Consultancy, Honoraria; Celgene: Other: Travel support; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support, Speakers Bureau. Saussele: Roche: Honoraria; Pfizer: Honoraria; Incyte: Honoraria, Research Funding; BMS: Honoraria, Research Funding; Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding.
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