-Author name in bold denotes the presenting author
-Asterisk * with author name denotes a Non-ASH member
Clinically Relevant Abstract denotes an abstract that is clinically relevant.

PhD Trainee denotes that this is a recommended PHD Trainee Session.

Ticketed Session denotes that this is a ticketed session.

81 Fitness, a UK Myeloma Research Alliance (UK-MRA) Frailty-Adjusted Therapy Study, Supports the Feasibility of Recruiting Frail Newly Diagnosed Myeloma Patients to Large Clinical Trials

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Type: Oral
Session: 653. Myeloma and Plasma Cell Dyscrasias: Clinical-Prospective Therapeutic Trials: Phase 2 and 3 Trials in Myeloma
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Clinical Trials, Age Inequities, Clinical Research, Plasma Cell Disorders, Clinically Relevant, Diseases, Therapies, Lymphoid Malignancies, Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI), Clinical Practice (e.g. Guidelines, Health Outcomes and Services, and Survivorship, Value; etc.)
Saturday, December 11, 2021: 10:00 AM

Gordon Cook, MD1,2*, Charlotte Pawlyn, BA, MB BChir, PhD, MRCP, FRCPath3,4, Kara-Louise Royle, MSc2*, Amy Beth Coulson, MSc2*, Jennifer Bird, MBBS, MRCP5*, Stella Bowcock, MD, BA, FRCP, FRCPath, MA6,7*, Matthew W Jenner8*, Bhuvan Kishore, MD9*, Christopher Parrish, MD10, Neil K Rabin, MD, PhD11*, Phillip Best2*, Sharon Gillson2*, Rowena Henderson2*, Catherine Olivier2*, Martin F. Kaiser, MD, FRCP, FRCPath3, Ruth M. de Tute, PhD, FRCPath12*, Roger G Owen, MD12*, Mark T Drayson, MD13*, John R Jones, MD7,14,15*, Bryony Dawkins, BA, MSc16*, David Meads, Ba, MSc, PhD16*, David Cairns, PhD2* and Graham Jackson, MBBS, FRCP, FRCPath, MA, DM17

1Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom
2Leeds Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Leeds Institute of Clinical Trials Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
3The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
4The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
5Department of Haematology, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom
6Queen Mary's Sidcup NHS Trust, Sidcup, United Kingdom
7King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
8Department of Haematology, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom
9University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, WMRC, Birmingham, United Kingdom
10Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
11Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom
12HMDS, Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, United Kingdom
13Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
14Eastbourne District General Hospital, Eastbourne, United Kingdom
15Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom
16Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom
17Department of Haematology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom

Background

Although the median age of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) is 70-74 years, recruitment of frail older patients to clinical trials is poor. The International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) frailty score predicts survival, adverse events and treatment tolerability using age, the Katz Activity of Daily Living, the Lawton Instrumental Activity of Daily Living, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index, rather than age alone. Despite IMWG score prognostic biomarker capability, to date no evidence exists of its predictive biomarker potential. The UK-MRA Myeloma Risk Profile (MRP) has also been shown in both clinical trial and real-world populations to be a prognostic biomarker in transplant ineligible patients but prospective comparisons of the two scores have not been previously conducted.

Study Design/Methods

The FiTNEss trial (Myeloma XIV, NCT03720041, Figure 1A) is a UK-MRA phase III, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial for newly diagnosed MM patients not suitable for stem cell transplant. The primary objectives are

1) to compare early treatment cessation (<60 days from randomisation) between patients randomised to standard (reactive) and frailty-adjusted (adaptive, based on IMWG score) induction therapy delivery with the triplet ixazomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone (IRd)

2) to compare progression free survival for maintenance lenalidomide plus placebo (R) and lenalidomide plus ixazomib (IR).

The FiTNEss trial is designed as an all-comers study with few exclusion criteria other than necessary for safety including some haematological and biochemical parameters, but there is no exclusion based on renal function. Patients with grade 2 or greater baseline peripheral neuropathy, current systemic infection or recent surgery or other cancer are excluded. Here we report the demographics for the first patients recruited, including IMWG frailty assessments and MRP to demonstrate the feasibility of recruiting frail patients to randomised phase III clinical trials.

Results

The FiTNEss trial opened on 04/08/2020 during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. At the time of data cut off (14/07/2021) recruitment is active at 84 sites, with 180 patients randomised.

Baseline characteristics for the randomised patients are shown in Figure 1B. The median age of patients is 77 years (range 64, 93) with 36.1% aged 76-80 and 26.1% over 80. In keeping with the older patient population 26.6% have an ECOG performance status of 2 or 3 and 31.7% ISS stage III. The IMWG frailty classification at baseline is FIT 43/180 (23.9%), UNFIT 53/180 (29.4%) and FRAIL 84/180 (46.7%).

The effect of using age groups on the definition of patient frailty was explored. The IMWG frailty score defines all patients over 80 as FRAIL whilst an age of 76-80 contributes one point to the score. An analysis of patients’ frailty was repeated with the contribution of age removed. For those aged over 80 years (n=47, 100% FRAIL) we found that 20 (42.6%) would have been re-classified as FIT and 18 (38.3%) as UNFIT, with only 9 (19.2%) retaining the FRAIL category. For those aged 76-80 (n=65, 53.8% UNFIT, 46.2% FRAIL) all 35 patients previously classified as UNFIT became FIT (53.8%) whilst 19 (29.2%) classed as FRAIL became UNFIT with 11 (16.9%) remaining FRAIL.

The MRP classification, using age as a continuous variable, was Low-risk 45/180 (25.0%), Medium-risk 46/180 (25.6%), High-risk 75/180 (41.7%) and not available for 14/180 (7.8%) patients. Concordance between the IMWG frailty score and the MRP occurred in 48.9% of patients (88/180). 37.2% of FIT patients were classified as MRP Low-risk, 32.1% of UNFIT patients as MRP Medium-risk and 65.5% of FRAIL patients as MRP High-risk.

Discussion

The FiTNEss trial demonstrates the feasibility of recruiting older, less fit patients to clinical trials. Recruitment of patients classified as FRAIL was very high despite the COVID pandemic, likely due to the all-oral nature of the regimen under investigation enabling patients to avoid attendance at hospital day units for treatment and associated exposure risk. In the population recruited to date we found age to be a key contributor to the FRAIL category of the IMWG frailty score. Concordance between IMWG frailty score and MRP was highest in FRAIL/High-risk patients. The first interim analysis of the primary objectives is planned when 50% of required participants for R1 have reached 60 days post R1, which is anticipated in Q2 of 2022.

Disclosures: Cook: Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria; Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria; Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria; Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Honoraria; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Pawlyn: Sanofi: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel support; Celgene / BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Other. Royle: BMS: Research Funding; Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding. Coulson: BMS / Celgene: Honoraria; Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding. Jenner: BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy. Kishore: Sanofi: Other: Attending fees; Celgene: Other: Attending fees; Takeda: Other: Attending fees; Jannsen: Other: Attending fees. Rabin: BMS / Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support for meetings; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support for meetings; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Travel support for meetings. Best: BMS/Celgene: Research Funding; Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding. Gillson: BMS / Celgene: Research Funding; Meck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding. Henderson: Takeda: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; BMS / Celgene: Research Funding. Olivier: Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Celgene / BMS: Research Funding. Kaiser: AbbVie: Consultancy; GSK: Consultancy; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy; Amgen: Honoraria; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy, Other: Educational support; Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Educational support, Research Funding; BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding. Drayson: Abingdon Health: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company. Jones: Janssen: Honoraria; BMS/Celgene: Other: Conference fees. Cairns: Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Celgene / BMS: Other: travel support, Research Funding. Jackson: celgene BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; J and J: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; oncopeptides: Consultancy; Sanofi: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau.

OffLabel Disclosure: Frailty-score adapted dosing strategies

*signifies non-member of ASH