-Author name in bold denotes the presenting author
-Asterisk * with author name denotes a Non-ASH member
Clinically Relevant Abstract denotes an abstract that is clinically relevant.

PhD Trainee denotes that this is a recommended PHD Trainee Session.

Ticketed Session denotes that this is a ticketed session.

3792 Prediction of Early Death and Severe Infections during Novel Agent-Based Induction Therapy in Newly-Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma: An Intergroup Analysis from the German Speaking Myeloma Multicenter Group, the Dutch–Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology Foundation and the European Myeloma Network

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 652. Multiple Myeloma and Plasma cell Dyscrasias: Clinical and Epidemiological: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Clinical Trials, Biological, Adults, Non-Biological, Clinical Research, Plasma Cell Disorders, Chemotherapy, Clinically Relevant, Diseases, Therapies, Immunotherapy, Lymphoid Malignancies, Adverse Events, Monoclonal Antibody Therapy, Study Population, Clinical Practice (e.g. Guidelines, Health Outcomes and Services, and Survivorship, Value; etc.)
Monday, December 13, 2021, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM

Elias K Mai, MD1*, Thomas Hielscher2*, Uta Bertsch, MD1,3*, Hans Salwender, MD4*, Sonja Zweegman5, Markus Munder6*, Lucia Pantani, MD, PhD7*, Peter Brossart, MD8, Meral Beksac, MD9, Igor Wolfgang Blau, MD10*, Marc-Steffen Raab1*, Jan Dürig, MD11*, Nicola Giesen, MD1*, Britta Besemer12*, Roland Fenk, MD13*, Peter Reimer, MD14*, Bronno van der Holt, PhD15*, Mathias Haenel16*, Ivana v. Metzler, MD17*, Ullrich Graeven18*, Mario Boccadoro19, Christof Scheid20, Meletios A. Dimopoulos, MD21, Katja Weisel22*, Michele Cavo, MD, PhD7*, Pieter Sonneveld23 and Hartmut Goldschmidt3,24

1Department of Internal Medicine V, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
2Division of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany
3National Center for Tumor Diseases Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
4Asklepios Tumorzentrum Hamburg, AK Altona and AK St. Georg, Hamburg, Germany
5Department of Hematology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
6Department of Hematology, Medical Oncology, and Pneumology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany
7Istituto di Ematologia “Seràgnoli”, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
8Department of Oncology, Hematology, Immuno-Oncology and Rheumatology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany
9Department of Hematology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
10Dept. Hematology, Oncology and Tumorimmunology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
11Department of Hematology, Essen University Hospital, Essen, Germany
12Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Immunology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany
13Department of Hematology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology, University of Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany
14Hematology, Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Essen-Werden gGmbH, Essen, Germany
15HOVON Data Center, Department of Hematology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, Netherlands
16Department of Internal Medicine III, Klinikum Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany
17Department of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
18Hematology, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Kliniken Maria Hilf GmbH, Moenchengladbach, Germany
19Myeloma Unit, Division of Hematology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy
20Department of Internal Medicine I, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany
21Department of Clinical Therapeutics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Athens, Greece
22Department of Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation with Section of Pneumology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
23Erasmus MC University and Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands
24University Hospital Heidelberg and National Center of Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg, Germany

Background: During the past decade, prognostic tools and outcomes of patients with newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) markedly improved. Data from clinical trials evaluating early morbidity and mortality including patients with transplant-eligible NDMM treated with novel agents are scarce. Thus, we aimed to analyze early morbidity and mortality in this patient cohort, devise and validate a predictive score to identify patients at risk.

Patients and methods: Between July 2005 and January 2018, 1333 patients with transplant-eligible NDMM from three subsequent phase III trials, HD4, MM5 and HD6 from the German-speaking Myeloma Multicenter Group (GMMG), received a novel agent-based induction therapy with either bortezomib (BTZ) / doxorubicine / dexamethasone (DEX; PAD: n=192, HD4; PAd: n=296, MM5), BTZ / cyclophosphamide / DEX (VCD: n=300, MM5), BTZ / lenalidomide / DEX (VRD: n=272, HD6) or elotuzumab / VRD (ELO-VRD: n=273, HD6). Severe infections (SI) were defined as any infection grade ≥ 3 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE). SI and early deaths were counted on and up to 30 days post induction therapy. Uni-/multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess predictive factors for SI and early death and to account for trial effects. Data from the European Myeloma Network (EMN) 02 / Dutch–Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology Foundation (HOVON) 95 phase III trial including 1497 patients with transplant-eligible NDMM receiving induction therapy with VCD were used to validate a predictive score for SI and early mortality.

Results: Overall, early mortality during induction therapy was low (n=24, 1.8%) in the GMMG cohort. SI were the most common cause for early deaths (n=15, 62.5%) as compared to MM progression-related death (n=5, 20.8%) and other causes (n=4, 16.7%). Rates of SI during induction therapy were 11.9% (n=159) and decreased in subsequent trial generations: HD4-PAD: 27.1%, MM5-PAd: 10.8%, MM5-VCD: 9.3%, HD6-VRD: 7.3% and HD6-ELO-VRD: 9.9% of patients. In the EMN02/HO95 trial, early mortality was 1.7% (n=25) and rates of SI were 6.8% (n=101).

A multivariate model including patient and disease baseline characteristics identified four major risk factors for SI and/or early death on induction therapy in the GMMG cohort: age (>60 years; odds ratio [OR]=1.70, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.21-2.40, p=0.002), International Staging System (stage III; OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.22-2.94, p=0.005), platelet count (<150/nl; OR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.27-3.30, p=0.004) and World Health Organization (WHO) performance status (>1; OR=1.82, 95% CI: 1.10-3.06, p=0.022).

A sum score based on these four risk factors (one risk factor = one point) was built and included 519 (39.5%), 550 (41.9%) and 245 (18.6%) patients with a score of 0, 1 and ≥2 points. A higher score gradually predicted an increasing risk for SI and/or death during induction therapy: 0 points=7.9%, 1 point=11.5% and ≥2 points=23.2% (p<0.001, Figure 1A); SI only: 0 points=7.7%, 1 point=10.9% and ≥2 points=21.6% (p<0.001, Figure 1B) and early death only: 0 points=0.4%, 1 point=1.3% and ≥2 points=5.7% (p<0.001, Figure 1C).

In the EMN02/HO95 cohort, 673 (45.6%), 587 (39.7%) and 217 (14.7%) patients had a score of 0, 1 and ≥2 points. The score was successfully validated in the EMN02/HO95 cohort: SI and/or death during induction therapy: 0 points=5.0%, 1 point=8.3% and ≥2 points=11.9% (p<0.001); SI only: 0 points=4.5%, 1 point=7.0% and ≥2 points=10.0% (p=0.006) and early death only: 0 points=0.5%, 1 point=2.2% and ≥2 points=2.5% (p=0.01).

Conclusions: To date, this is the largest pooled analysis of individual patient data on early morbidity and mortality in patients with transplant-eligible NDMM treated with novel agent-based induction therapy. Our analysis highlights a decreasing incidence of SI and early mortality and proposes a validated, easy-to-use score to identify patients at excessive risk for SI and/or early death during induction therapy. This allows the implementation of intensive monitoring, preventive and supportive strategies for this subgroup of patients in further clinical trials and also routine care.

Disclosures: Mai: Celgene / BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel accommodations and expenses, Research Funding; Glaxo Smith Kline: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel accommodations and expenses, Research Funding; Janssen-Cilag: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel accommodations and expenses, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: travel accommodations and expenses, Research Funding. Salwender: AbbVie: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; Amgen: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; Takeda: Honoraria; Sanofi: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; GlaxoSmithKline: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; Janssen-Cilag: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; Bristol-Myers Squibb/Celgene: Honoraria, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES; Oncopeptides: Honoraria; Chugai: Honoraria; Pfizer: Honoraria. Zweegman: Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Munder: GSK: Consultancy; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria; Abbvie: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria; Sanofi: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Incyte: Research Funding. Pantani: Janssen: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria. Brossart: BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria; MSD: Honoraria. Beksac: Amgen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Celgene: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Sanofi: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Oncopeptides: Consultancy. Raab: BMS: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Roche: Consultancy; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; GSK: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Dürig: Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Support, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Besemer: Takeda: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria; GSK: Honoraria. Fenk: GSK: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria; Janssen: Honoraria; BMS/Celgene: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria. Haenel: Bayer Vital: Honoraria; Jazz: Consultancy, Honoraria; GSK: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria; Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria; Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria; Amgen: Consultancy; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria. Metzler: Takeda: Consultancy; BMS: Consultancy; GSK: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy; AstraZeneca: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; Sanofi: Consultancy. Graeven: Amgen: Honoraria; Sanofi Aventis: Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria, Research Funding; Johnson and Johnson: Honoraria; Astra Zeneca: Honoraria; MSD: Consultancy; Boehringer Ingelheim: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Fujifilm: Honoraria; Roche: Research Funding; Gilead: Research Funding; Ipsen Bioscience: Research Funding; MacroGenics: Research Funding. Boccadoro: Janssen and GSK: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sanofi, Celgene, Amgen, Janssen, Novartis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and AbbVie: Honoraria; Sanofi, Celgene, Amgen, Janssen, Novartis, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Mundipharma: Research Funding. Scheid: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Roche: Consultancy; Abbvie: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Dimopoulos: Janssen: Honoraria; BMS: Honoraria; Amgen: Honoraria; Takeda: Honoraria; Beigene: Honoraria. Weisel: Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Roche: Honoraria; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Abbvie: Consultancy; Novartis: Honoraria; Pfizer: Honoraria. Cavo: Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy, Honoraria; Novartis: Honoraria; GlaxoSmithKline: Consultancy, Honoraria; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Travel Accommodations, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: TRAVEL, ACCOMMODATIONS, EXPENSES, Speakers Bureau; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Bristol-Myers Squib: Consultancy, Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Sonneveld: SkylineDx: Honoraria, Research Funding; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Celgene/BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding. Goldschmidt: Mundipharma: Research Funding; Incyte: Research Funding; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grants and/or Provision of Investigational Medicinal Product, Research Funding; Johns Hopkins University: Other: Grant; Molecular Partners: Research Funding; MSD: Research Funding; GSK: Honoraria; Chugai: Honoraria, Other: Grants and/or Provision of Investigational Medicinal Product, Research Funding; Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grants and/or Provision of Investigational Medicinal Product, Research Funding; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grants and/or Provision of Investigational Medicinal Product, Research Funding; Adaptive Biotechnology: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grants and/or Provision of Investigational Medicinal Product, Research Funding; Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding; Dietmar-Hopp-Foundation: Other: Grant; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grants and/or Provision of Investigational Medicinal Product, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH