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560 Outcome of Children with Different Non-Malignant Disorders Given Alphabeta T and B-Cell Depleted HLA-Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (TBdepl-haploHSCT)

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Type: Oral
Session: 732. Clinical Allogeneic Transplantation Results II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, Bone Marrow Failure, thalassemia, Genetic Disorders, Hemoglobinopathies, immunodeficiency, Immune Disorders, Clinically relevant
Monday, December 7, 2020: 7:15 AM

Pietro Merli, MD1*, Daria Pagliara, MD, PhD1*, Federica Galaverna, MD, PhD1*, Giuseppina Li Pira, PhD1*, Valentina Bertaina, PhD1*, Stefania Gaspari, MD1*, Emilia Boccieri, MD1*, Marco Becilli, MD1*, Giovanna Del Principe, MD2*, Olivia Marini, PhD1*, Francesca Del Bufalo, MD1*, Francesco Quagliarella, MD1*, Antonio Giacomo Grasso, MD1*, Tiziana Corsetti, PhD3*, Matteo Di Nardo, MD4*, Luisa Strocchio, MD1*, Mattia Algeri, MD1* and Franco Locatelli, MD, PhD1,5

1Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Cell and Gene Therapy, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy
2Transfusion Unit, Department of Laboratories, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy
3Hospital Pharmacy, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy
4Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome, Italy
5Department of Pediatrics, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy

Background: allogeneic HSCT is the only potentially curative treatment for many non-malignant diseases (NMD), either inherited or acquired. However, many patients lack an HLA-matched donor (familiar (MFD) or unrelated (MUD)) and the outcome of children transplanted from an HLA-haploidentical relative (haplo) was historically inferior to that of transplants from a MFD or a MUD. We previously published promising results in a cohort of 23 children with NMD given this type of allograft (Bertaina et al., Blood 2014), demonstrating a low transplant-related mortality (TRM) and high cure rates. Here, we report the outcome of a large cohort of children affected by NMD who received a TBdepl-haploHSCT at our Center (NCT01810120).

Patients and methods: Between February 2011 and June 2020, 80 consecutive patients affected by NMD received TBdepl-haploHSCT from an HLA-partially matched relative at Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù in Rome, Italy. Patients had many different disorders (see Table for details on patient- and transplant-related characteristics). Median time from diagnosis to transplant for the whole cohort was 12 months (range 1-177), while it was 2.5 months (range 1.3-11.2) for SCID patients. All patients, including children with SCID, received a conditioning regimen, which varied according to the original disease. Pre-transplant anti-thymocyte globulins (from day -4 to day -2) were given to modulate bi-directional donor/recipient alloreactivity, while rituximab (on day -1) was administered to prevent PTLD. Moreover, no post-transplant pharmacological GvHD prophylaxis was given.

Results: fifty-eight patients (72.5%) achieved primary donor cell engraftment, while 3 patients experienced secondary graft failure (GF); the cumulative incidence of either primary or secondary GF was 27.8% (95% CI 17.2-37.0). Median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery was 13.5 (range 9-33) and 10 days (range 7-51), respectively. As expected, GF occurred more frequently in children with disorders known to be associated with an increased GF risk (i.e., HLH, thalassemia, SAA or osteopetrosis) (see also Figure 1A). Three children (4%) experiencing GF died because of infectious complications before retransplant. Sixteen of the 22 patients with either primary or secondary GF were successfully retransplanted (2 with a mismatched unrelated cord blood unit, the other having received a second TBdepl-haploHSCT from either the same donor or the other parent). Since 3 other patients died [all because of infectious complications, 2 due to disseminated adenovirus infection and 1 to CMV pneumonia)], TRM is 7.8% (95% CI 1.6-13.7). Eighteen patients experienced acute GVHD of any grade, the cumulative incidence of this complication being 22% (95% CI 13.5-31.8); 10/18 patients developed grade II acute GVHD (no patient developed grade III or IV aGVHD), this resulting into a cumulative incidence of 12.9% (95% CI 6.6-21.4). Only one patient at risk developed mild chronic GVHD. Twenty-two and 7 patients developed clinically-relevant (i.e., with a viral load > 1000 copies/ml and/or requiring specific antiviral-treatment) CMV and adenovirus infection, respectively, at a median time of 4 (range 0-16) and 1 (range 1-4) weeks from HSCT. Time averaged area under the curve (i.e., viral burden under the curve/weeks at risk for infection) for CMV and ADV are reported in Figure 1B. With a median follow-up of 36 months (range 2 – 110), the 5-year probability of overall survival and event-free survival for the entire cohort of patients is 92.1% (95% CI 83.3-96.4) (Figure 1C) and 68.1% (95% CI 56.4-77.2), respectively. Considering the 16/22 given a successful 2nd allograft, the 5-year disease-free survival is 88.4% (95% CI 78.9-93.8). Details on reconstitution of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes are reported in Figure 1D.

Conclusions: TBdepl-haploHSCT is an effective option for children with different NMD. GF (either primary or secondary) is a challenging problem in a sub-group of patients at risk (i.e., those with HLH, thalassemia, SAA or osteopetrosis): thus, new strategies to overcome this problem are desirable. However, a second transplant is able to rescue most of these patients. Prompt availability of this type of transplant, limiting infectious risk, low incidence of both acute and chronic GvHD preserving a good quality of life in patients makes this strategy an attractive choice in patients with NMD.

Disclosures: Merli: Bellicum Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; SOBI: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Jazz: Honoraria; Sanofi-Genzyme: Honoraria; Atara Therapeutics: Honoraria. Algeri: BlueBird Bio: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Atara Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Locatelli: Jazz Pharmaceeutical: Speakers Bureau; Medac: Speakers Bureau; Miltenyi: Speakers Bureau; Bellicum Pharmaceutical: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau.

*signifies non-member of ASH