Session: 731. Clinical Autologous Transplantation: Results: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
multiple myeloma, Diseases, Non-Biological, Therapies, chemotherapy, Plasma Cell Disorders, Lymphoid Malignancies, Clinically relevant
Methods: We performed a phase-II randomized trial comparing standard 200 mg/m2 Melphalan (Mel) HDCT to experimental HDCT treatment with 200 mg/m2 bendamustine, a bifunctional alkylating agent, given at days -4 and -3, combined with 200 mg/m2 melphalan split on days -2 and -1 at 100 mg/m2 (BenMel) before ASCT in MM pts. Patients had up to four cycles of first-line induction treatment with bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone. After ASCT, pts received lenalidomide maintenance treatment for two years. The primary endpoint was to show a 15% improvement of the rate of complete remission (sCR+CR) after HDCT with BenMel compared to Mel alone. MRD assessment from the bone marrow was performed by multiparameter flow cytometry after hematological engraftment following HDCT/ASCT. MRD negativity was defined as clonal plasma cells below 10(-5).
Results: We randomized 120 myeloma pts (60 patients in each arm), with high-risk genetic abnormalities present in 21.3% of the patients. The median age was 63 years (range 35-74). The sCR/CR rate after ASCT before initiation of lenalidomide maintenance treatment was better in the BenMel arm compared to Mel alone (70.0% vs 51.7%; p=.039). The post-ASCT remission rates in detail were sCR 40.0% vs 31.7% (p=.341); CR 30.0% vs 20.0% (p=.205); VGPR 16.7% vs 33.3% (p=.035); and PR 13.3% vs 15.0% (p=.793). MRD negativity assessed in the bone marrow by flow cytometry was observed in 26 (45.6%) of the BenMel treated pts compared to 22 (37.9%) of the Mel pts. Median time until neutrophil engraftment was 11 days after BenMel vs 12 days after Mel (p=.096), and median time until platelet engraftment was 13 days in both arms (p=0.367); all pts had full engraftment of both cell lineages. Prolonged hospitalization duration was seen in BenMel pts (median 19 vs 18 days; p=.006) due to the longer BenMel treatment administration. Fully reversible acute renal insufficiency occurred in three (5%) BenMel pts compared to none of the Mel pts (p=.250). No treatment-related mortality was seen in both groups. ICU admissions were necessary in 3 pts (5%) in the BenMel group (ARDS, septic shock, pulmonary failure), and 2 Mel treated pts (3.3%; due to pulmonary failure and decompensated cardiomyopathy). The PFS rates at 12 months were 95% in BenMel pts and 91% in Mel treated pts (p=.551). OS at 12 months was 96% for both groups (p=.262), and median PFS and OS were not reached in both groups.
Conclusions: Our data confirm that high-dose bendamustine combined with melphalan HDCT before ASCT in MM patients is safe and well tolerated. In particular, bendamustine-associated renal toxicity was manageable and reversible in all patients, and hematopoietic engraftment was comparable to standard melphalan HDCT. HDCT with BenMel improves the sCR/CR rate compared to standard melphalan alone. Thus, BenMel HDCT before ASCT warrants further investigation aiming to improve the long-term survival rates of MM patients, eventually combined with new maintenance strategies in the post-transplant period.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
See more of: Oral and Poster Abstracts