Session: 613. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, bacterial, Non-Biological, Therapies, Infectious Diseases
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are major and lethal infectious complications for patients with neutropenia after chemotherapy for acute leukemia (AL). We aimed to compare the use of oral posaconazole vs. itraconazole in an intravenous-oral regimen for primary antifungal prophylaxis in terms of efficacy, adverse events and costs among neutropenic patients with AL after chemotherapy.
This single-center, retrospective study enrolled patients with AL. Prophylaxis with oral posaconazole or intravenous-oral itraconazole (intravenous formulation × 2 days + oral suspension) was administered for patients recovering from neutropenia after chemotherapy. Propensity-score matching was used to assemble a cohort of patients with similar baseline characteristics.
Among 342 eligible episodes from 186 patients, 110 episodes received oral posaconazole and 110 episodes received itraconazole in sequential regimen had similar propensity scores and were included in the analyses. The incidence of breakthrough IFDs was 0.0% (0/110) and 0.0% (0/110) in the posaconazole group and itraconazole group, while the incidence of proven, probable and possible IFDs was 1.8% (2/110) and 8.2% (9/110), respectively (P=0.030). In clinical failure analysis, the failure rate of posaconazole group was lower as compared to the itraconazole group (2.7% vs. 10.9%, P=0.016). The proportion of patients who needed systemic antifungal treatment were lower in posaconazole group than that in itraconazole group (2.7% vs. 10.0%, P=0.027). Five cases (4.5%) experienced adverse events possibly associated with posaconazole and thirteen cases (11.8%) with itraconazole (P=0.049). There was no significant difference of survival between patients on posaconazole or itraconazole. The acquisition costs of posaconazole were higher than those of itraconazole (P=0.000).
Both oral posaconazole and intravenous-oral itraconazole are effective in preventing IFDs for acute leukemia patients recovering from neutropenia after chemotherapy, while posaconazole is slightly better. Oral posaconazole is safer and more tolerable but costs higher than intravenous-oral itraconazole.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
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