Session: 613. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
AML, Diseases, Biological Processes, Technology and Procedures, cytogenetics, Clinically relevant, genomics, Myeloid Malignancies, NGS
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, affecting approximately 20,000 patients annually in the United States. AML genetic subtypes, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), are identified through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), conventional chromosome analysis, and sequencing techniques. Mate pair sequencing (MPseq) is a next generation sequencing (NGS) technology optimized to detect genome wide structural variants and copy number alterations at high resolution. Our study goal was to investigate the prognostic value of MPseq in comparison to FISH, chromosome, and sequencing studies in the evaluation of AML patients.
We performed a prospective study using blood and bone marrow samples from 105 patients with a diagnosis of AML, using MPseq, along with chromosome, FISH, and NGS or PCR studies to detect small mutations. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic results were correlated with MPseq findings. We also analyzed the MPseq data for chromoplexy, chromothripsis, and progressive complexity. Junction and copy number burden, the incidence of structural variation in the genome and the percent of the genome with aberrant copy number, were evaluated. Overall survival statistics were stratified by AML subtypes and observed anomalies.
Although structural variants in AML were characterized at a high resolution using MPseq when compared to conventional cytogenetic methods, risk stratification using current European Leukemia Net (ELN) guidelines was not improved by MPseq. The cohorts involving 5q and/or 7q deletions exhibited high levels of genomic complexity when compared to normal karyotype AML (NK-AML). The incidence of copy number gains, losses and junctions was greatest in 5q and 7q co-deletions (5q/7q) (16.5, 25.0, 69.3) and 5q deletions (5q) (9.8, 16.7, 31.6) subtypes compared to 7q deletions (3.4, 7.0, 6.7) and NK-AML (2.6, 4.3, 3.8) (p<0.001) subtypes. Chromoplexy, chromothripsis, and progressive structural complexity were detected in most samples with 5q deletions and 5q/7q co-deletions, but absent in samples with 7q or NK-AML. Biallelic inactivation of TP53 by sequencing mutation and/or deletion was common in the 5q/7q co-deletion (14/18 cases) and 5q deletion cohorts (7/10 cases), rare in the 7q deletion cohort (1/11 cases), and absent in the NK-AML (n=44) cohort. The median OS was significantly worse for patients with 5q/7q deletions (122.5 days) and 5q deletions (248 days) compared to NK-AML (413.5 days; p<0.001 and p=0.017, respectively) and between 5q/7q deletions and 7q deletions (370.5 days; p<0.001). No significant difference was observed between 5q/7q and 5q deletion subtypes, between NK and 7q deletion subtypes and between 5q and 7q deletion subtypes. The median OS was also significantly shorter for patients with TP53 alterations compared to patients with normal TP53 status. Patients with chromoplexy, chromothripsis and/or progressive structural complexity identified by MPseq had a significantly shorter median OS compared to patients without these features. (p<0.0001)
Risk stratifications based on current guidelines using cytogenetic and sequencing results were not adjusted due to MPseq results, which is not surprising when primary abnormalities are observed by conventional cytogenetic methods. NK-AML cases did not appear to benefit from a high resolution genomic evaluation. However, MPseq added value when structural variation required additional characterization, detecting novel rearrangements, such as a KAT6A/SORBS3 fusion. Lastly, we recognized common mischaracterizations made by conventional chromosome studies – including missed TP53 deletions in 7 cases, 5q/7q deletions misinterpreted as monosomies, cryptic NUP98 rearrangements, and unappreciated genomic complexity correlating with poor OS. These mischaracterizations challenge the use of conventional chromosome studies as a gold standard without accompanying FISH or MPseq studies. MPseq, similar to other structural methodologies such as optical mapping and long read sequencing, should be considered important complements to standard cytologic techniques given the important additional genomic information obtained. The additional structural variant characterization will be critical in paving the way for genomic discovery with the overall goal of improving prognostication for patient care.
Disclosures: Vasmatzis: WholeGenome LLC.: Other: Owner; Mayo Clinic: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.
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