Session: 616. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Novel Therapy, excluding Transplantation: Advances in immunotherapeutics for management of AML
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Biological, Therapies, Biological Processes, immunotherapy, immune mechanism
Methods: To study the functional role of CD200 in AML, we generated a CD200 overexpression model in the human OCI-AML3 cell line (with no basal expression) and characterized changes in proliferation, survival, and gene expression. To examine the immune function of CD200 in AML in vitro, we performed a series of mixed lymphocyte reactions with isolated effector immune cells and target isogenic AML cell lines to assess immune cell-mediated apoptosis, proliferation, and cytokine secretion. To understand the contribution of CD200 immune protection in a physiological setting, we developed a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-humanized mouse in which we tracked the engraftment and overall survival of the CD200+/- OCI-AML3 cells. Lastly, the utility of CD200-blockade using a fully humanized anti-CD200 monoclonal antibody (CD200-IgG1) was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.
Results: In vitro, CD200+ AML significantly inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic enzymes from healthy PBMCs; a phenomenon that could be largely reversed by blocking the CD200/CD200R interaction with the CD200 antibody (Fig 1B). In vivo, OCI-AML3 CD200+/- cells showed no difference in engraftment, progression, and overall survival in immunodeficient NSG mice (Fig 1C). However, when mice were humanized using healthy PBMCs, CD200+ leukemia progressed rapidly, escaping T cell-mediated elimination, compared to CD200- control leukemic cells (Fig 1D). Cytokine production in PBMC-humanized mice was significantly compromised in those with CD200-expressing leukemia. Transcriptome analysis revealed that T cells from humanized mice exposed to CD200 expressing disease were metabolically quiescent. In humanized mice, CD200-IgG1 therapy eliminated CD200+ AML disease (Fig 1E). The novel CD200-IgG1 antibody also induced potent, specific NK cell-mediated antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and macrophage-mediated antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP; Fig 1F).
Conclusion: We have identified CD200 as a putative stem cell-specific immunomodulatory target that aids in establishing an immunosuppressive microenvironment by significantly suppressing cytokine secretion in response to AML. In a PBMC-humanized mouse model, the presence of cell-surface CD200 was sufficient to protect AML cells from immune-mediated clearance and could be reversed using a blocking anti-CD200 mAb. These findings indicate a utility of CD200 as a novel immune checkpoint target for the development of therapeutic strategies in AML.
Disclosures: Konopleva: Calithera: Research Funding; Kisoji: Consultancy; AbbVie: Consultancy, Research Funding; Reata Pharmaceutical Inc.;: Patents & Royalties: patents and royalties with patent US 7,795,305 B2 on CDDO-compounds and combination therapies, licensed to Reata Pharmaceutical; Ablynx: Research Funding; Genentech: Consultancy, Research Funding; F. Hoffmann La-Roche: Consultancy, Research Funding; Eli Lilly: Research Funding; Cellectis: Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy; Stemline Therapeutics: Consultancy, Research Funding; AstraZeneca: Research Funding; Sanofi: Research Funding; Agios: Research Funding; Forty-Seven: Consultancy, Research Funding; Rafael Pharmaceutical: Research Funding; Ascentage: Research Funding.
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