Session: 618. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Biology, Cytogenetics, and Molecular Markers in Diagnosis and Prognosis: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Leukemia, Diseases, Biological Processes, white blood cells, Cell Lineage, Lymphoid Malignancies, pathogenesis
Methods: The Leukemia and Lymphoma Committee of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (JSPHO) sent out questionnaires to 110 JSPHO affiliated hospitals and collected cases of MNPKL diagnosed during the period 2000–2013. Besides, the cases published as literature were recruited. The data of clinical features, cell surface antigen profiling, overall survival (OS), and event-free survival (EFS) defined as relapse or death were also collected as a secondary survey. The protocol of this retrospective study was approved by the review boards of JSPHO and Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital. Comprehensive genetic analysis including 13 whole-exome sequences (WES), 2 target sequence, 6 RNA sequence (RNA-seq), and 8 DNA methylation analysis was performed. We also performed single-cell RNA-seq using 1 sample of MNKPL patients and a normal bone marrow sample as the reference. The research protocol was approved by the review board of TMDU.
Results: Sixteen children or young adults (< 39 years old) and 2 older adults with MNKPL were identified. The median age of MNKPL patients was 11 (0.5–75) years old. There are 12 males and 6 females. The extramedullary involvement was observed in 7 patients. Complete remission after induction therapy was achieved in 8/14 (57%) patients treated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) type chemotherapy and 2/4 (50%) patients treated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/non-Hodgkin lymphoma type chemotherapy, respectively. Fifteen patients underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The median follow-up period was 3.8 (0.1–16.0) years. 5-year OS and 5-year EFS was 49.5% and 40.7%, respectively.
In genetic analysis, median 388 somatic mutations in MNKPL were identified by WES. The recurrent mutations were observed in NOTCH1 (n=5), MAML3 (n=4), NRAS, MAP3K4, RECQL4, CREBBP, ASXL2, and KMT2D (n=3, respectively), and MAML2, MAP3K1, FLT3, CARD11, MSH4, FANCI, WT1, ZNF384, and ERG (n=2, respectively). The distinct expression pattern, higher expression of RUNX3 and NOTCH1, and lower expression of BCL11B were identified in MNKPL samples which were compared to MPAL, AML, and T cell ALL in RNA-seq. The distinct methylation profile, hypomethylation of RUNX3 regulatory region, and hypermethylation of BCL11B regulatory region were identified in DNA methylation analysis. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis also showed distinct 4 subsets of MNKPL.
Discussion and Conclusions: NK cells are the founding member of a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Genetic abnormality of NOTCH1 pathway is a hallmark of MNPKL. RUNX3 is required for NK cell survival and proliferation in response to IL-15 signaling. RUNX3 high expression and hypomethylation of RUNX3 regulatory region also characterize MNKPL. Currently, MNKPL is classified as MPAL NOS, our genetic analysis revealed that MNKPL is a distinct group from MPAL. The prognosis of MNKPL was not satisfactory even though HCT was performed. The development of new therapeutic approaches based on these genetic analyses is highly expected.
Disclosures: Saito: Toshiba Corporation: Research Funding. Nakazawa: Toshiba Corporation: Research Funding.
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