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2388 Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in Patients with GATA 2 Deficiency: Influence of Donor Stem Cell Source and Post-Transplantation CyclophosphamideClinically Relevant Abstract

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 722. Clinical Allogeneic Transplantation: Acute and Chronic GVHD, Immune Reconstitution: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Non-Biological, Diseases, GVHD, Therapies, chemotherapy, immunodeficiency, Immune Disorders, Clinically relevant
Sunday, December 6, 2020, 7:00 AM-3:30 PM

Diana X. Nichols-Vinueza, MD1*, Nirali N. Shah, MD2, Jennifer Cuellar-Rodriguez, MD3*, Thomas R. Bauer Jr., PhD4*, Katherine Calvo, MD, PhD5,6, Luigi D. Notarangelo, MD1*, Steven M. Holland, MD7* and Dennis D. Hickstein, MD4

1Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
2Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute/Nih, Bethesda, MD
3LCIM, NIAID, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
4Immune Deficiency-Cellular Therapy Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD
5Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
6Hematology Section, Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
7NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, MD

Background: We recently reported on the single-institution experience with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 22 consecutive patients with GATA2 deficiency or the MonoMAC syndrome and observed a disease-free survival of nearly 90%. However, despite 10/10 HLA match of matched related donors (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (URD), there was a 25% incidence of grades III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) with tacrolimus/methotrexate (Tacro/MTX). In contrast, there was no grade III-IV acute GVHD in the haploidentical related donor (HRD) recipients, all of whom received GVHD prophylaxis with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) followed by tacrolimus/mycophenolate (tacro/MMF). Based on this initial experience, the protocol was subsequently amended to incorporate PT/Cy in all patients. We now report on this expanded cohort of a total of 59 patients, representing the largest experience with HSCT for GATA2 deficiency.

Methods: This single-institution study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center between 2013 and 2020 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01861106). Patients between 12 to 60 years of age were eligible if they had a deleterious mutation in the GATA2 gene, or clinical picture of the MonoMAC syndrome. Although the primary endpoints were engraftment and reversal of the clinical phenotype, a secondary endpoint was added to determine if PT/Cy in the MRD and URD reduced the incidence of grade III-IV aGVHD without compromising the overall and disease-free survival. Immune reconstitution at 100 days, 6, 12, 24, 36 months was analyzed.

Results: 59 patients (median age at diagnosis 24 years; IQR 20-32) with GATA2 deficiency or the MonoMAC syndrome underwent allogeneic HSCT. MRD and URD recipients received busulfan for four days (targeted to an AUC 3600-4800) and fludarabine, whereas HRD recipients received two days of low dose cyclophosphamide, 5 days fludarabine, 200cGY total body irradiation, and two or three days of busulfan depending upon the presence or absence of clonal cytogenetic abnormalities. Donor sources included: 11 MRD, 31 URD, and 17 HRD. Median follow-up was 2 years [IQR 1-4], 88% (52/59) are currently alive. Seven deaths have occurred, including: persistent AML (n=1); infection (n=4); poor graft function and cardiac arrest (n=1) and from HPV-associated metastatic cancer (n=1). All of the patients who received HRD transplant are alive. Median time to neutrophil engraftment was 15 days (IQR 13-17) and 19.5 days (IQR 16-25) for platelets. Ninety three percent (55/59) of patients had blood test results after 100 days post-transplant to assess immune reconstitution; eighty one percent (45/55) had normal absolute monocyte counts, 67% (37/55) had normal absolute NK cell counts and 89% (49/55) had normal B cells counts. There was one case of primary graft failure in a recipient of an URD-transplant, and one secondary graft rejection in a recipient of HRD-transplant. Fifty-four percent (32/59) of patients had pre-HSCT myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and only two relapsed post-HSCT. Forty two percent (25/59) had abnormal cytogenetics pre-HSCT; amongst 23 patients with serial pre/post bone marrow cytogenetic evaluations, 19 had established normal cytogenetics post-HSCT. Forty five percent (19/42) of MRD/URD patients received Tacro/MTX for GVHD prophylaxis, and 31.5% (6/19) developed grade III-IV acute GVHD (aGVHD). In contrast, 55% (23/42) MRD/URD patients received PT/Cy for GVHD prophylaxis, and none developed grade III-IV aGVHD (p 0.0052). Five percent (1/17) of HRD recipients developed grade III-IV aGVHD. Forty two percent (8/19) of MRD/URD patients who received post-transplant Tacro/MTX had chronic GVHD, 4.3% (1/23) of MRD/URD patients who received PT/Cy developed cGVHD, and 5.8% (1/17) of HRD patients developed cGVHD within the first 2 years post-transplant.

Conclusions: Allogeneic HSCT using a busulfan-based regimen in GATA2 deficiency results in nearly a 90% disease-free survival with long-term immune reconstitution. The use of PT-Cy reduced the risk of severe aGVHD and cGVHD and did not increase the risk of relapse or progression of MDS/AML. With earlier recognition of the disease, and the use of PT/Cy more broadly, these results are expected to continue to improve.

Disclosures: Notarangelo: NIAID, NIH: Research Funding.

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