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2848 CPX-351 Population Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 615. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Commercially Available Therapy, excluding Transplantation: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
AML, Adult, Diseases, Non-Biological, Therapies, chemotherapy, Pediatric, Young Adult, Study Population, Myeloid Malignancies, Clinically relevant
Monday, December 7, 2020, 7:00 AM-3:30 PM

Qi Wang1*, Todd M. Cooper, DO2, Michael J. Absalon3, E. Anders Kolb, MD4, Grygoriy Vasilinin5*, Nathalie H. Gosselin5*, Todd A. Alonzo, PhD6* and J.F. Marier5*

1Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Palo Alto, CA
2Seattle Children’s Hospital, Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Seattle, WA
3Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH
4Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Nemours Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE
5Certara, Princeton, NJ
6University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA

CPX-351 (Vyxeos®; daunorubicin and cytarabine liposome for injection), a dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin and cytarabine at a 1:5 synergistic ratio, is approved by the US FDA and EMA for the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed therapy-related AML or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes. Recently, CPX-351 was used in pediatric patients (pts) with relapsed AML (JCO 2020, ASH 2019, ASH 2018). A population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of plasma concentrations of cytarabine and daunorubicin following IV administration of CPX-351 was performed to assess sources of variability in PK and to determine if age-based dose adjustments may be warranted, particularly in pediatric pts.

The PK population consisted of 250 pts with advanced hematologic malignancies from 7 studies and included 46 (18%) pediatric pts (1-17 y) and 204 (82%) adults (≥18 y). The population included 148 (59%) males, mainly of white origin (82%).

Nonlinear mixed-effect modeling was performed using NONMEM®. Model evaluation and selection were assessed using a standard model discrimination process that included statistical criteria (eg, objective function value) and pertinent graphical representations of goodness-of-fit. Separate PK models were developed for cytarabine and daunorubicin; intrinsic and extrinsic factors were evaluated as covariates. The intrinsic factors included body weight, body mass index, age, sex, race, white blood cell count, and markers of renal function (creatinine clearance, serum creatinine) and hepatic function (bilirubin, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase). The extrinsic factors included study type (adult vs pediatric/young adult) and formulation (frozen vs lyophilized).

Based on previous population PK models developed for adults, the PK models for cytarabine and daunorubicin used 2-compartment structural models, with drug input into the central compartment, first-order distribution between the central and peripheral compartments, and first-order elimination from the central compartment. Two-compartment structural models with body surface area (BSA) as an allometric scalar provided minimum bias in estimates of systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution for the central compartment (Vc).

Based on the final population PK models, the estimates of CL and Vc in adults were 0.101 L/h and 4.76 L, respectively, for cytarabine and 0.140 L/h and 4.04 L for daunorubicin. The population estimates of CL and Vc for cytarabine in children, adolescents, and young adults (<22 y) were 0.073 L/h and 3.91 L, respectively, for cytarabine and 0.093 L/h and 3.28 L for daunorubicin. The population PK models included an allometric component that accounted for differences in BSA. The exponent for the effect of BSA on CL was 0.948 and 0.876 for cytarabine and daunorubicin, respectively, suggesting a faster clearance in pts with higher BSA. These differences in CL are expected to be offset by BSA-based dosing of CPX-351. Bilirubin and formulation (frozen) remained statistically significant covariates on the CL of daunorubicin.

All tested covariates were eventually excluded from the population PK models, except BSA, bilirubin, study type, and formulation, which have a small effect on PK and are not expected to result in detectable changes in clinical safety or efficacy. Age was evaluated both as a continuous and categorical variable (1-5, 6-11, and 12-17 y) and was not a significant covariate for cytarabine and daunorubicin CL and Vc. Study type was identified as a significant covariate for CL and Vc for cytarabine and daunorubicin, which was possibly due to a change in analytical site for pediatric studies. Mean AUC0-48 values of cytarabine in pts aged 1-5, 6-11, and 12-17 y (135 U/m2) were similar (2767, 2783, and 2806 μg·h/mL, respectively) and approximately 40% higher than that observed in pts ≥18 y (100 U/m2, 1928 μg·h/mL), proportional to the 35% higher dose in pediatric pts. Mean AUC0-48 values of daunorubicin in pts aged 1-5, 6-11, and 12-17 y (135 U/m2) were similar (967, 896, and 982 μg·h/mL, respectively) and approximately 40% higher than that observed in pts ≥18 y (100 U/m2, 615 μg·h/mL), proportional to the 35% higher dose in pediatric pts.

The results of this population PK analysis indicated exposures to CPX-351 in pediatric pts were not affected by age and were similar to those in adults when administered at the same BSA-normalized dose.

Disclosures: Wang: Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Cooper: Celgene: Other: Spouse was an employee of Celgene (through August 2019). Absalon: Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding.

OffLabel Disclosure: Yes, in this study, CPX-351 was also evaluated in pediatric AML

*signifies non-member of ASH