Session: 651. Myeloma: Biology and Pathophysiology, excluding Therapy: Poster III
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, Technology and Procedures, Plasma Cell Disorders, Lymphoid Malignancies, Clinically relevant, serologic tests
Early diagnosis, effective therapy and precise monitoring are central for improving clinical outcomes in systemic light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Diagnosis and disease response assessment is primarily based on the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulins and free light chains (FLC). The ideal goal of therapy associated with best outcomes is a complete responses (CR), defined by the absence of serological clonal markers. In both instances, detection of the monoclonal component (M-component) is based on serum FLC assessment together with traditional serum and urine electrophoretic approaches, which present inherent limitations and lack sensitivity particularly in AL where the levels are typically low. Novel mass spectrometry methods provide sensitive, accurate identification of the M-component and may prove instrumental in the timely management of patients with low-level amyloidogenic light chain production. Here we assess the performance of quantitative immunoprecipitation FLC mass spectrometry (QIP-FLC-MS) at diagnosis and during monitoring of AL amyloidosis patients treated with bortezomib-based regimens.
We included 46 serial patients with systemic AL amyloidosis diagnosed and treated at the UK National Amyloidosis Centre (UK-NAC). All patients had detailed baseline assessments of organ function and serum FLC measurements. Baseline, +6- and +12-month serum samples were retrospectively analysed by QIP-FLC-MS. Briefly, magnetic microparticles were covalently coated with modified polyclonal sheep antibodies monospecific for free kappa light chains (anti-free κ) and free lambda light chains (anti-free λ). The microparticles were incubated with patient sera, washed and treated with acetic acid (5% v/v) containing TCEP (20 mM) in order to elute FLC in monomeric form. Mass spectra were acquired on a MALDI-TOF-MS system (Bruker, GmbH). Results were compared to serum FLC measurements (Freelite®, The Binding Site Group Ltd), as well as electrophoretic assessment of serum and urine proteins (SPE, sIFE, UPE and uIFE).
Cardiac (37(80%) patients) and renal (31(67%) patients) involvement were most common; 25(54%) patients presented with both. Other organs involved included liver (n=12), soft tissue (n=4), gastrointestinal tract (n=3) and peripheral nervous system (n=2). Baseline Freelite, SPE, sIFE and uIFE measurements identified a monoclonal protein in 42(91%), 22(48%), 34(74%) and 21(46%) patients, respectively. A panel consisting of Freelite + sIFE identified the M-component in 100% of the samples. QIP-FLC-MS alone also identified an M-component in 100% of the samples and was 100% concordant with Freelite for typing the monoclonal FLC (8 kappa, 34 lambda). In 4 patients, QIP-FLC-MS identified an additional M-protein that was not detected by the other techniques. In addition, 4/8(50%) kappa and 4/38(11%) lambda patients showed a glycosylation pattern of monoclonal FLCs at baseline by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the frequency of renal involvement was significantly lower for patients with non-glycosylated forms (25% vs 76%, p=0.01), while no similar relationship was found for any other organs. During the 1-year follow-up period, 17 patients achieved a CR; QIP-FLC-MS identified serum residual disease in 13(76%) of these patients.
In our series, QIP-FLC-MS was concordant with current serum methods for identifying the amyloidogenic light chain type and provided, against all other individual tests, improved sensitivity for the detection of the monoclonal protein at diagnosis and during monitoring. The ability to measure the unique molecular mass of each monoclonal protein offers clone-specific tracking over time. Glycosylation of free light chains is over-represented in AL patients which may allow earlier diagnosis and better risk-assessment of organ involvement. Persistence of QIP-FLC-MS positive M component in patients otherwise in CR may allow targeted therapy. Overall, QIP-FLC-MS demonstrates potential to be exploited as a single serum test for precise serial assessment of monoclonal proteins in patients with AL amyloidosis.
Disclosures: Wechalekar: GSK: Honoraria; Janssen-Cilag: Honoraria; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria; Celgene: Honoraria.
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