Session: 701. Experimental Transplantation: Basic Biology, Pre-Clinical Models: Poster I
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Biological, multiple myeloma, Diseases, Therapies, checkpoint inhibitors, immunotherapy, Plasma Cell Disorders, Lymphoid Malignancies, transplantation
Myeloma-bearing B6 recipients underwent myeloablative conditioning and were transplanted with naïve B6 bone marrow (BM) grafts with or without T cells from donors that were myeloma-naïve (SCT) or had low M bands at the time of harvest to mimic ASCT. Surprisingly, we demonstrate the broad induction of T cell-dependent myeloma control with enhanced median survival in recipients of grafts containing T cells compared to T cell depleted (TCD) BM alone (SCT= 91 days and ASCT > 100 days post-transplant vs TCD BM alone= 44 days; p<0.0001). Myeloma was most efficiently controlled when recipients were transplanted with memory T cells (CD44+) from autologous grafts (median survival: ASCT-CD44+ T cells >90 days post-transplant vs. CD44─ T cells = 50 days; p = 0.0006). Importantly, T cells adoptively transferred from recipients surviving > 120 days (MM-primed) protected secondary recipients compared to T cells from naïve donors (median survival: MM-primed > 120 days post-transplant vs 65 days naïve T cells; p = 0.0003). Furthermore, MM-primed CD8 T cells were restricted in TCR repertoire and provided protection in a myeloma clone-specific fashion, indicative of a tumor-specific T cell response.
Despite this immune-mediated control of myeloma after SCT, progression still occurred in the majority of recipients. We phenotyped CD8+ T cells from the BM of MM-relapsed, MM-controlled and MM-free (that had never seen myeloma) mice 8 weeks after SCT. Expression of the inhibitory receptors, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) on BM CD8+ T-cells strongly correlated with myeloma cell number (r = 0.729, p<0.0001 and r = 0.796, p<0.0001 respectively). Additionally, the co-stimulatory/adhesion receptor CD226 (DNAM-1) was markedly downregulated as myeloma progressed (r = - 0.865, p<0.0001), as was interferon-γ secretion (r = - 0.76, p = 0.0022). t-SNE analysis confirmed an irreversible exhaustion signature at myeloma progression, characterized by the absence of DNAM-1 and co-expression of PD-1, TIM-3, TIGIT together with CD101 and CD38. Immune-checkpoint inhibition (CPI) early post-SCT, using antibodies against PD-1 or TIGIT facilitated long-term myeloma control (median survival in both treatment arms > 120 days post-SCT vs. 60 and 68 days respectively; p <0.05). Furthermore, TIGIT blockade limited CD8+ T cell exhaustion, increased CD107a and IFNγ secretion and expanded a memory CD8+ T cell population in the BM. Genetic deletion of either IFNγ or the IFNγ receptor from the donor graft resulted in dramatic myeloma progression after SCT. Consequently, treatment with a CD137 (4-IBB) agonist early after SCT profoundly augmented CD8+IFNγ+GranzymeB+ T-cell expansion in the BM, such that majority of treated animals eliminated myeloma and survived long-term. These data provide insights into an unappreciated mechanism of action of ASCT whereby myeloma immune-equilibrium is established and suggest that combination with immunotherapeutic strategies is a rational approach to generate long term disease control.
Disclosures: Smyth: Bristol Myers Squibb: Other: Research agreement; Tizona Therapeutics: Research Funding.
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