Session: 634. Myeloproliferative Syndromes: Clinical: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, MPN, Clinically relevant, Myeloid Malignancies
Young patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF), constitute a distinct, steadily growing subpopulation (Eur J Haematol. 2017;98:85). Most available data, including current prognostic models, are excerpted from older populations and may not accurately mirror the unique phenotypic and prognostic patterns seen in younger patients. The objective of the current study was to comprehensively assess the phenotypic features and long-term outcomes in MPN patients age ≤ 40 years.
The study population was recruited from a master database of MPN patients seen at our institution between 1967 and 2017. Diagnoses were in accordance with 2016 World Health Organization criteria (Blood. 2016;127:2391). Data was abstracted from the time of referral, which coincided in the majority with the time/within one year of diagnosis. Additional molecular data was obtained based on availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) information. Conventional statistics was utilized for group comparisons and calculation of survival data.
The study population was recruited from a total of 3,023 MPN patients: 665 PV, 1076 ET, and 1282 PMF. Of these, 361 (12%) were ≤ 40 years of age at the time of initial diagnosis; the corresponding incidences were 12% in PV (n=79), 20% in ET (n=219) and 5% in PMF (n= 63).
Young PV patients (n=79):
Median age (range) was 32 years (18-40) and males constituted 54% (Table 1). Over a median follow-up of 11.3 years, fibrotic transformation rates were 22% vs 25% and 10% in those 41-60 and >60 years of age, respectively (P<0.001). Leukemic conversion rates were balanced across age categories (4% vs 5% vs 3% for successively older cohorts) (P=0.4). Interestingly, young patients had lower rates of arterial (P<0.001) and higher of venous thrombosis (P=0.01) prior to/at diagnosis vs older cohorts while events post-diagnosis were comparable across age groups (P=0.6).
Young ET patients (n=219):
Median age (range) was 32 years (18-40) with a minority (31%) constituted of males. During a median follow-up of 13 years, fibrotic progressions rates were 16% vs 16% and 9% in those aged 41-60 and >60 years, respectively (P<0.001). The leukemic conversion rate (2%) was analogous to that of older cohorts (5% and 3%, respectively) (P=0.1). Young patients also experienced significantly fewer arterial thrombotic events prior to/at diagnosis (6% vs 14% and 18%) and after diagnosis (8% vs 16% and 22%) compared to older cohorts (P<0.0001).
Young PMF patients (n=63):
Median age (range) was 37 years (19-40) with a preponderance of males (59%). High risk karyotype was not seen in young patients vs in 5% and 8% of those 41-60 and > 60 years of age, respectively (P=0.004). During median follow-up of 7.1 years, leukemic conversions were recorded in 10% of young patients vs 10% and 9% of respectively older cohorts (P=0.9). Young subjects also experienced fewer arterial thrombotic events prior to/at diagnosis (2% vs 6% and 13%) and lower rates of venous thrombosis after diagnosis (2% vs 10% and 4%) compared to cohorts 41-60 and > 60 years of age, respectively (P<0.0001).
NGS data disclosed significant clustering of high risk molecular mutations with successively older subgroups (≤ 40 vs 41-60 vs > 60 years); ASXL1: 19 vs 40 vs 45% (P=0.005), SRSF2: 6 vs 8 vs 18% (P=0.0004), and U2AF1: 3 vs 11 vs 19% (P=0.004) (Table 1).
Kaplan-Meier survival curves stratified by age bracket (≤ 40 vs 41-60 vs > 60 years) disclosed median OS in successively older age groups to be 37, 22, and 10 years for PV (Figure 1A), 35, 22, and 11 years for ET (1B), and 20, 8, and 3 years for PMF (1C); exposing significantly longer median survival estimates in younger patients, systematically across all disease subtypes (P<0.001). When appraised as a function of MPN subtype, survival data confirmed the significantly reduced OS in PMF relative to PV and ET (P<0.001), though PMF patients aged ≤ 40 years were still projected to have a reasonably favorable median life expectancy of 20 years (Figure 2).
Young MPN patients comprise a unique disease subset defined by an attenuated-risk cytogenetic and mutational backdrop compared to their older counterparts. Caution must be exercised in counseling and managing this population as historical ‘one-size-fits all’ data fails to reflect the true natural history and disease biology in the young.
Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
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