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3160 Plasma Cell Proliferative Index Is an Independent Predictor of Progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma

Program: Oral and Poster Abstracts
Session: 651. Myeloma: Biology and Pathophysiology, excluding Therapy: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, smoldering myeloma, Plasma Cell Disorders, Lymphoid Malignancies, Clinically relevant
Sunday, December 2, 2018, 6:00 PM-8:00 PM
Hall GH (San Diego Convention Center)

Mohammed A Aljama, MBBS, FRCPC1, M Hasib Sidiqi, MBBS2, Arjun Lakshman, MBBS1*, Angela Dispenzieri, MD1, Dragan Jevremovic, MD, PhD3*, Morie A. Gertz, MD1, Martha Q. Lacy, MD1, Francis K. Buadi, MB, CHB1*, David Dingli, MD, PhD1, Eli Muchtar, MD1, Amie Fonder, PA-C1*, Suzanne R. Hayman, MD1, Miriam Hobbs, CNP1*, Wilson I Gonsalves, MD1, Rahma Warsame, MD1, Taxiarchis Kourelis, MD1, Lisa Hwa, CNP, DNP1*, Prashant Kapoor, MD1, Nelson Leung, MD1,4, Ronald S. Go, MD1, Robert A. Kyle, MD1, S. Vincent Rajkumar, MD1 and Shaji K. Kumar, MD5

1Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
2Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, MN
3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
4Division of Nephrology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN
5Department of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

The plasma cell proliferative index (PCPI) provides an insight into plasma cell biology in plasma cell disorders. It recognizes cells that are actively synthesizing DNA and gives an indication of the proliferative rate of the malignant plasma cells.The PCPI has been shown to be a prognostic tool in patients with multiple myeloma and amyloidosis.

We conducted a retrospective review analyzing the prognostic impact of PCPI in 306 patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM).

The median age was 66 (56-73) years and 61% (n=186) were males. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 10.2 years (95% confidence interval: 9.0–10.9). One-hundred sixty-nine (55%) patients were alive at the time of study analysis while 118 (39%) had progressive disease. The median time to progression was 5.9 years (95% confidence interval: 4.8–8.2). Symptomatic events at the time of progression included anemia in 41% (n=48), bone complications in 37% (n=44), renal complications in 9% (n=11), hypercalcemia in 2% (n=2) and development of amyloidosis in 2% (n=2). Seventeen patients (14%) were categorized as having progression due to rapid progressive elevation in the serum free light chains (sFLC) and/or progressive increase in the size of their M-spike.

The median time between the diagnosis and PCPI date was 0 months (interquartile range 0-1). An elevated PCPI was defined as a level >0.5%. Seventy-nine (26%) patients had an elevated PCPI. Patients with an elevated PCPI were significantly older (median age: 69 years for elevated PCPI vs 64 years for low PCPI (p= 0.008) and predictably had more proliferative disease with a higher rate of patients with bone marrow plasma cells >20% (48% for elevated PCPI vs 34% for low PCPI, p=0.03). An elevated PCPI predicted a shorter time to progression (TTP); median 3.0 years versus 7.1 years for those with a low PCPI (p= 0.0004). Within 24 months, the progression rate was significantly higher for patients with an elevated PCPI; 49% versus 20% (p<0.0001). We constructed two multivariable models using the conventional and recently proposed Mayo risk stratification tools. In both models, an elevated PCPI was an independent predictor of to multiple myeloma.

PCPI is a valuable tool in risk stratifying patients with SMM and identifies patients with earlier progression who may benefit from closer follow up and consideration of early intervention trials.

Disclosures: Dispenzieri: Celgene, Takeda, Prothena, Jannsen, Pfizer, Alnylam, GSK: Research Funding. Gertz: Research to Practice: Consultancy; spectrum: Consultancy, Honoraria; Abbvie: Consultancy; Amgen: Consultancy; janssen: Consultancy; Physicians Education Resource: Consultancy; Teva: Consultancy; celgene: Consultancy; annexon: Consultancy; Alnylam: Honoraria; Prothena: Honoraria; Medscape: Consultancy; Apellis: Consultancy; Ionis: Honoraria. Lacy: Celgene: Research Funding. Dingli: Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Other: Participates in the International PNH Registry (for Mayo Clinic, Rochester) for Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Millennium Takeda: Research Funding; Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: Other: Participates in the International PNH Registry (for Mayo Clinic, Rochester) for Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Millennium Takeda: Research Funding. Kapoor: Celgene: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding. Kumar: AbbVie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Celgene: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; KITE: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding.

*signifies non-member of ASH