Session: 635. Myeloproliferative Syndromes: Basic Science: Identification of Novel Therapeutic Targets
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, Biological Processes, Technology and Procedures, MPN, genomics, Myeloid Malignancies, NGS, pathogenesis
We initially performed whole exome sequencing (WES) of skin lesions, blood, and fingernails from identical (monozygotic, dichorionic), one-year-old twins with systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). This identified an identical in-frame deletion in CSF1R (CSF1RY546_K551del) in the skin lesions of both children. Recent data from murine models suggest that CSF1R-expressing yolk sac derived precursors of tissue-resident macrophages may be a cell-of-origin of the histiocytoses (Mass, et al. Nature 2017). Consistent with this hypothesis, the identical CSF1R mutation was shared across the histiocytosis lesions in both twins but was absent from blood or fingernails.
We next sought to determine if similar mutations in CSF1R might exist in sporadic histiocytosis cases. We therefore sequenced 92 ECD (42%), 58 LCH (27%), 50 JXG (23%), 12 RDD (5%), and 6 histiocytic sarcoma (HS) (3%) lesions using WES, targeted DNA sequencing with a 585-gene panel, and targeted RNA-sequencing for fusions in 74 genes. This identified recurrent mutations in BRAFV600E, MAP2K1, N/KRAS, and ARAF, as well as BRAF, NTRK1, and ALK fusions as previously described in ECD and LCH (Fig. A-C). Interestingly, CSF1R mutations were also found in 8 cases, most commonly as CSF1RY546_K551del, and were predominantly in JXG (10%; n=5/50). Consistent with the recurrent nature of this mutation, expression of CSF1RY546_K551del, but not CSF1RWT, conferred robust cytokine-independent growth to cell lines normally dependent on cytokines (Ba/F3 and 32D cells; Fig. D). We also identified individuals with mutations in CSF3R, KIT, ALK, MET, JAK3, and CRAF, as well as a RET fusion. These studies additionally identified important differences in the spectrum of kinase alterations across histiocytoses subtypes. For example, the BRAFV600E mutation was the most common kinase alteration in LCH and ECD but was not identified in JXG or RDD. Furthermore, BRAF fusions were predominantly seen in LCH and JXG. Meanwhile, NTRK1 and ALK fusions were mainly identified in JXG and ECD, respectively.
From a therapeutic perspective, CSF1R activating mutations sensitized cells to inhibition with the CSF1R-specific, small-molecule kinase inhibitors pexidartinib and BLZ945. In addition, in the course of this study, a patient bearing ALK-rearranged ECD required therapy, and we were able to evaluate response to the ALK inhibitor crizotinib. Crizotinib-treatment resulted in profound and sustained therapeutic improvements in this patient (Fig. E).
Overall, the above data demonstrate the occurrence of activating CSF1R and other RTK alterations in patients with histiocytic neoplasms, many of which have direct therapeutic importance (such as the first demonstration of ALK inhibitor efficacy in ALK+ histiocytosis). In addition, the discovery of somatically acquired CSF1R activating mutations in identical twins with histiocytosis provides the first human evidence that tissue-resident macrophages may serve as a cell-of-origin of the histiocytoses.
Disclosures: Arcila: Invivoscribe, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria.
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