Session: 613. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster II
Hematology Disease Topics & Pathways:
Diseases, AML, Adult, Therapies, Non-Biological, chemotherapy, Study Population, Clinically relevant, Myeloid Malignancies
Pre-treatment determinants of survival in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) include performance status, age, karyotype, the distinction between primary and non-primary AML and FLT3-ITD/NPM1 mutational status. Current literature on AML natural history and risk factors is often based on information derived from stringent protocol studies. In the current series of 1,123 adult patients seen at the Mayo Clinic between 2004 and 2017, we examined long-term survival specified by a number of primarily established risk factors.
Diagnosis of AML and its sub-classification was according to World Health Organization criteria. Study subjects were recruited from the Mayo Clinic AML database. Conventional response criteria were used for CR and CRi assignment; the latter met all criteria for CR with the exception of platelet count <100 x 109/l or absolute neutrophil cunt <1 x 109/l. Standard statistical methods were used for analysis of overall survival, calculated from the initial diagnosis of AML to date of death or last follow-up; analyses were performed both in the absence and in the presence of censoring of survival at time of allogenic stem cell transplant (ASCT). The JMP® Pro 13.0.0 software from SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, was used for all calculations.
1,123 adult patients (median age 65 years, range 18-94; 61% males) with non-APL AML were considered; 61% were age >60 years. 351 (31%) patients were seen between 2004 and 2009 and 772 (69%) between 2010 and 2017. AML subcategories were primary (56%), post-myelodysplastic syndromes (post-MDS; 24%), therapy-related (10%), post-myeloproliferative neoplasm (post-MPN; 8%) and post-MDS/MPN (3%). Cytogenetic risk distribution, according to the European LeukemiaNet classification, was favorable in 47 (4%), intermediate in 650 (58%) and adverse risk in 426 (38%) patients. FLT3, NPM1 and CEBPA mutation information was available in 462 (24% mutated), 393 (27% mutated) and 228 (11% mutated) patients, respectively.
Treatment included intensive chemotherapy (IC) in 766 (68%) patients, less aggressive chemotherapy, including the use of hypomethylating agents in 144 (13%) and supportive care alone in 213 (19%) patients. ASCT was utilized in 258 (23%) cases, almost all performed after achieving CR/CRi. Complete remission (CR) and CR with incomplete count recovery (CRi) were listed in 333 (30%) and 248 (22%) patients, respectively; the corresponding rates in IC-treated patients were 43% and 32%. Almost all cases of CR/CRi occurred in IC-treated patients; 2 (1.4%) CRs were listed for less aggressive chemotherapy.
After a median follow-up of 11 months, 798 (71%) deaths were recorded. Median survival for all 1,123 patients was 14 months with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 54%, 29% and 23%, respectively; a slight but significant (p=0.01) improvement in survival was apparent in more recent years (Figure 1a). Figures 1b, 1c and 1d depict analysis stratified by AML subcategories, treatment received and response obtained, respectively. Similarly, figures 2a, 2b and 2c depict analysis stratified by karyotype, use of ASCT and age.
Multivariable analysis of pre-treatment parameters evaluable in all 1,123 patients identified age >60 years (HR 2.2, 1.9-2.6), adverse karyotype (HR 2.9, 1.9-4.9), intermediate-risk karyotype (HR 1.6, 1.02-2.6), post-MPN AML (HR 1.9, 1.5-2.4) and other secondary AML (HR 1.3 (1.1-1.6), as risk factors for shortened survival; the inclusion in the model of FLT3/NPM1 mutational status in 392 informative cases confirmed the adverse prognostic effect of age >60 years (HR 1.8, 1.4-2.5), adverse karyotype (HR 3.7, 1.4-15.3), post-MPN AML (HR 2.8, 1.6-4.6), other secondary AML (HR 1.4, 1.0-1.9) and FLT3+NPM1- (HR 2.8, 1.6-4.9) and FLT3-NPM1- (HR 1.7, 1.2-2.7) profile. Results were unchanged when survival was censored at time of ASCT. Additional prognostic interaction with treatment strategy and ASCT is further elaborated in an accompanying abstract to be presented.
The current study, the largest coming from a single institution, provides practically useful information that should assist with patient consultation on AML prognosis and treatment. The study confirms the primary prognostic importance of age, karyotype and FLT3/NPM1 mutational status, in real-life practice. Novel observations included comparable value of CRi vs CR and the particularly worse prognosis associated with post-MPN AML.
Disclosures: Al-Kali: Novartis: Research Funding.
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